Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Dactylis glomerata
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 2 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ya mao

English: barnyard grass, cocksfoot, cockspur, orchard grass

French: dactyle aggloméré, dactyle pelotonné, dactyle vulgaire, gramen pelotonné

Spanish: jopillo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Tufted perennials; culms 15-140 cm tall, erect or spreading, slender to stout, the vegetative shoots strongly compressed.  Sheaths strongly compressed and keeled; ligule oblong-ovate, 4-8 mm long, fimbriate-lacerate; blades 10-45 cm long, 2-14 mm wide, folded, glabrous.  Inflorescences paniculate, oblong to ovate, 2-30 cm long, the branches closely spaced, usually the lower ones distant and without spikelets; spikelets oblong or cuneate, 5-9 mm long, aggregated in compact fascicles; glumes lanceolate to ovate, 3-6 mm long, 1-nerved, keel ciliate, first glume 2-6 mm long, second glume 3-7 mm long; lemmas lanceolate to oblong in side view, 4-7 mm long, keel ciliate or scabrous, apex with a rigid awn up to 1.5 mm long, palea lanceolate.  Caryopsis loosely enclosed by lemma and palea, ellipsoid to lanceoloid-ellipsoid, ca. 3 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1521).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grass- and heathland, forests, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands, coastal areas.  In the native range, this grass is found in meadows, pastures, sand dunes and disturbed sites.  The grass establishes in disturbed sites and forms dense swards that suppress native grasses and forbs"  (Weber, 2003; p. 136).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and abundant in pastures and along trails and roadsides, 100-2,290 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1521).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3 - 5 months, precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter.  Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed.  "Seed production is usually high, and seeds are dispersed by wind, water and by adhering to animals"  (Weber, 2003; p. 136).

Native range:  Europe, now widely cultivated and naturalized (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1521). Europe, north Africa (including the Madeira Islands), western and central Asia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"A coarse pasture grass introduced for fodder". Vouchers cited: A.C. Beauglehole 5418 (CANB, MEL), L.M. Bingley 20 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"A coarse pasture grass introduced for fodder". Voucher cited: P.H. Metcalfe (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1521)
Voucher cited: Rock 3212 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1521)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 120)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim (2011) (p. 33)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 090628-02 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1521)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1521)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 95)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 165)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountain slopes, light forest shade, other grassy places; 1400-3600 m.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 119)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 119)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Owen, S. J. (1997)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 95)
"Lowland in waste ground, pasture, gardens and dune hollows, to subalpine in short tussock grassland and scrub".
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Mountain slopes, light forest shade, other grassy places; 1400-3600 m.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Lavergne, Christophe (2006)
"Naturalisé"
Mascarene Islands
Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, La Reunion, Rodrigues)
Mascarene Islands introduced
Weber, Ewald (2003) (p. 136)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical:  "Plants can be dug out, the crown must be removed to prevent regrowth.  Larger stands are cut before flowering commences.  Follow-up programmes are necesar to treat seedlings"  (Weber, 2003; p. 136).


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This page was created on 28 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 20 MAR 2013.