Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyrtococcum trigonum
(Retz.) A. Camus, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Panicum trigonum Retz.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: short-leaf cyrtococcum

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annual with slender, branching, decumbent or creeping culms, the culms usually widely spreading and often mat-forming, the erect floriferous branches mostly only 10-20 (-30) cm long.  Sheaths ciliate on the margins, often hairy on the sheath node.  Ligule a truncate or rounded membrane 0.3-0.5 mm long.  Blades flat, scabrous, sparsely short-hispid or pilose, mostly 1-3 (-4) cm long and 3-7 mm broad.  Panicles short, few-flowered, contracted or somewhat open, mostly 1.5-6.0 cm long, the spikelets on short, usually appressed pedicels.  First glume 1/2 1 1/2 as long as spikelet.  Spikelets laterally flattened.  Second glume and lemma of lower floret appressed-strigose, 3-nerved, the second glume broad and rounded on the back, the lemma longer and narrower.  Lemma and palea of upper floret minutely alveolate, the lemma flattened laterally and "humped up" in the middle"  (Howard, 1979; p. 122).

"Annual, the culms branching, slender, semiprostrate; flowering culms 2.5-30 cm high; panicle few-flowered, open to contracted, 1.2-5 cm long, the ascending side branches 6-12 mm long; spikelets laterally compressed, more or less strongly pilose, 1.5-2 mm long, the upper glume keeled" (Smith, 1979; p. 351).

"Small grass similar to [C. oxyphyllum and C. patens], but with smaller leaves and inflorescences, and with hairy spikelets" (Whistler, 1988; p. 49).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji," occurs from sea level to about 600 m in coastal thickets, light forest, waste places, pastures, coconut plantations, and old gardens, usually preferring shady places" (Smith, 1979; p. 351). In Samoa and Wallis and Futuna, "common to abundant in coconut plantations and sunny, disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 49).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Southeastern Asia (Smith, 1979; p. 351).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9486
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1990) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Harris 334, Yuncker 9114
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 9518)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyrtococcum trigonum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 351)
Vouchers cited: Smith 8118, DA 8908, Smith 8313, DA 8886, DA 8936
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 351)
Vouchers cited: DA 8814, DA 8828, DA 8860, Degener & Ordonez 14149, DA 9621, DA 12050, DA 16826
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 351)
Vouchers cited: DA 9194, DA 10114, DA 8368
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 60)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 328)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyrtococcum trigonum
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 49)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 49)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 11 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.