Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyperus rotundus
L., Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 13 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Chlorocyperus rotundus (L.) Palla; Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf.

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: boto-botonis

Chamorro: chaguan humatag

Chinese: suo cao, xiang fu zi

English: cocograss, ground-almond, Java-grass, nut grass, nut sedge, purple nut-grass, purple nutsedge, red nut sedge

Fijian: ivako, malanga, mot ha, soranakambani, soro ni kabani, soronakambani, vucesa, vuthesa

French: herbe à oignon, herbe à oignons, souchet à tubercules, souchet d'Asie, souchet en forme d'olive, souchet rond

Hawaiian: kili‘o‘opu, mau‘u mokae

I-Kiribati: te mumute, te mutemute

Iloko: balisanga

Japanese: hamasuge

Korean: hyangbuja

Maori (Cook Islands): matie ‘ōniāni, mauku ‘ōniāni, ‘ōniāni lau, ‘ōniāni rau, ‘ōniāni tita

Marshallese: tuteoneon, tutueoneon

Nauruan: ibugibugi

Palauan: tamanengi

Pampangan: mala-apulid, sur-sur

Samoan: mumuta

Spanish: almendra de tierra, castañuela, cebollín, chufa, coco, coquillo, coquillo purpura, coquito, cortadera, juncia real

Tagalog: mutha

Tokelauan: mumuta

Tongan: pakopako

Tuvaluan: mouku, muta

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Perennial herb with long rhizomes; sometimes tuberous; culms up to 60 cm tall; leaves 2-6 mm wide; spikes ovate, on rays to 6 cm long; spikelets linear, 1-2 cm long, 12-30-flowered, the rachilla winged; scales purplish, carinate, obtuse; achene sub-obovoid, trigonal, 1.5 mm long, black, minutely papillate" (Stone, 1970; p. 167).

Habitat/ecology:  "The species is found in cultivated fields, on roadsides, in neglected areas, and at the edges of woods, and it may cover the banks of irrigation canals and streams.  The plant does not tolerate shade.  The dormant tubers remain viable, however, and as soon as an opening again appears, the sedge begins to infest the area.  The species is found on all soil types and from sea level to high mountains.  It is sensitive to shade and grows in wet and dry soils and climates.  In cool areas or in waterlogged soils it grows slowly, flowers little, and produces few tubers.  It dies back, becomes quiescent, and is carried through extremely dry periods by the tuber system which draws its water from a root system that may penetrate deeply into the soil"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 10).  "A cosmopolitan weedy sedge, growing in farmlands, grasslands, and sandy or gravelly shores, riverbanks, and waste places" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971). "It is a major weed of cultivated crops and of gardens, but only a minor weed elsewhere.  It is encouraged by frequent cultivation and grows best in moist fertile soils."  (Swarbrick, 1997)  Does not grow well in shade. Prevalent in disturbed areas and lawns. Very persistent once established.

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in disturbed areas, 0-800m"  (Wagner et al., 1999).  In Fiji, "an abundant naturalized weed, occurring near sea level on cultivated land, along roadsides, on plantations and in cane fields, as well as along the seashore"  (Smith, 1979).  In New Guinea, "a weed of gardens, field crops, waste land and pastures; particularly troublesome in any form of cultivation which requires clean, unshaded soil. Spread is usually rather slow, but once established the plant is persistent" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p 32). In Tonga, "in open grassy areas" (Yuncker, 1959). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe parfois gênante dans les jardins" (MacKee, 1994).

Propagation:  Tubers and rhizomes; seed occasionally.  "The seeds are distributed by wind or sheet erosion, transported in mid, or floated onto fields by flooding streams or with irrigation water" (Holm et al., 1977; p. 19-20).

Native range:  Africa and Eurasia; native status in New World uncertain; widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 35332)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 45)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 1369
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 34745)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3429
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430438)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 34)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 204)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: J. Pickard 2698 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 502 (CHR), W.R. Sykes NI 505 (CHR)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 637068)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000090)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 110618)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 572590)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 74)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 10199)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 80)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 86)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 92)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 110339)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 42)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 39551)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 249)
Voucher cited: DA 9076
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 249)
Vouchers cited: DA 8913, DA 5733
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 249)
Vouchers cited: DA 8734, DA 8852
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 249)
Vouchers cited: DA 8549, Greenwood 415, DA 8186, DA 8650, DA 7908, DA 701, DA 11087, DA 10957
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: B. Huguenin s.n. (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000638)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6928 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 542905)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42492)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: S.P. Perlman , K.R. Wood & J.-P. Luce 15948 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 26311)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64844 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491097)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 315)
Voucher cited: BRY 26557
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 315)
Voucher cited: BRY 26028
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 37)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2251 (PAP), J. Florence 2505 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491104)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491105)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 639572)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1981 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.Florence 3059 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491107)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.Florence 10100 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633871)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 37)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 16)
Adventice d'introduction européene.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2047 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.Florence 7085 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 167)
Vouchers cited: Stone 5144 (GUAM), Gregor 445, Moore 156
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 110612)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 588309)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Strong, Mark T./Wagner, Warren L. (1997) (p. 42)
Vouchers cited: Herbst & Takeuchi 9053 (BISH), Herbst & Takeuchi 9076 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 11)
Rare in exposed areas near the quarters.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Hughes 14 (US)
Common in lawns and disturbed lowland sites.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 6)
A common pest in gardens, this plant can be observed near the main building.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Chock, Alvin K./Hamilton, Jr., Dean C. (1962) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 12172, Fosberg 13282 (BISH)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 18)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 18)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Degener 21413 (US), Fosberg 55717 (US), Clapp P-71-32 (US)
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 172)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-144 (BISH 697757)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697757)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-75 (BISH 697690)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697690)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Voucher: Imada 2003-77 (BISH 697692)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Maiana Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697692)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 10)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 31251)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Lamberson, J. O. (1982) (p. 15)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 412172)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 412183)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1962) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 39478a (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 38918)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 74)
Vouchers cited: Wagner 3376, Fosberg 31200, Fosberg 39497, Fosberg 48036, Herbst 8950, Herbst 9024, Herbst 9630, Whistler 11161, Whistler 11245
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 31200 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 38857)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 526969)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 561270)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1966) (voucher ID: BISH 561271)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 631429)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Anderson, Donald (1951) (p. ii)
Voucher cited: Anderson 3674
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2007) (p. 2)
Not observed on 2007 survey.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0628200901
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 110615)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 571799)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 421862)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 38)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 34)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Maloelap Atoll   Imada, Clyde (2006)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Wotje (Wõjjã) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2009) (p. 1)
Voucher cited: Vander Velde 0513200911
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 50-51)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58686 (US), Scully 149N (US?), Thaman & Manner 89 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: MacKee 28333
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Däniker 2170
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Rudérale, nombreuses localités
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 48)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 1432, MacKee 18330, MacKee 25266, Hoff 2080 (NOU)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: MacKee 23459
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 189)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 159)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 227)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150612, CHR 150614
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 42)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 51)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9939 (BISH)
"Common dooryard and waste area weed".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015) (p. 2)
ref cites other taxa as "Cultivated," but not this one, so implication is that this taxon was found in a non-cultivated situation (PT@PhilipT.com/20170602)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Ngeriungs Islet introduced
invasive
Miles, Joel (2015)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 110617)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngercheu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 92)
Carp Resort
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 21)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 56)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 32)
From low altitudes to at least 1800 m.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 107-108)
In open areas at low and medium altitudes. Common in lawns, along roads, and in waste places.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 70)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 110435)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 110442)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 29016)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 110443)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1904) (voucher ID: BISH 110444)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 62)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 166)
Moderate invader.
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘afeva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640420)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 440420)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 70)
"Common throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15417
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 110441)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: Ilolahia 78
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Hürlmann 326
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 84)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 772, Whistler 6042
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 59)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 91)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 53)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 640934)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1399)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Palmyra Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2002) (voucher ID: BISH 686011)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 68)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 6)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 890 (US), McFarlane 67 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 5)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 34933 (US), Fosberg 34948 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 633254)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659983)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus rotundus L.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Shine, C./Reaser, J. K./Gutierrez, A. T., eds. (2003) (p. 179)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 25)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 42)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Envahissant principalement dans les milieux perturbés
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Australia, Western Australia
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 21, 24)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 21, 24)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 21, 24)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, wet or dry areas on mountain slopes, stream margins, along trails, sandbanks, ditch margins, water margins in valleys, paddy field margins; near sea level to 2100 m. Anhui, Chongqing, Dongsha Qundao, Fujian, S Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, S Liaoning, Nansha Qundao, S Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xisha Qundao, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 311)
In waste places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 21, 24)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 21, 24)
Negara Brunei Darussalam
Brunei
Brunei (Negara Brunei Darussalam) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 189)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 21, 24)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 31)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Grasslands, wet or dry areas on mountain slopes, stream margins, along trails, sandbanks, ditch margins, water margins in valleys, paddy field margins; near sea level to 2100 m.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 118)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 65, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 112)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 146)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 819 (K, US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 23)
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Nicobar Islands
Nicobar Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Malè Atoll   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36840 (US)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 120)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 180)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2879 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 149)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3104 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 50)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2723
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Mostly a pest of agriculture and lawns, but can be invasive in disturbed habitats. On New Zealand noxious weed list and banned from sale in that country. A pest plant on Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 112).

Control: 

Physical: A closed canopy will shade it out. "Controlled by thick, black, plastic mulches, but not by organic mulches. Only slightly affected by competitive crops. Hand weeding, chipping and cultivation only effective in dry soils, where they only keep it in check. Feeding by poultry and pigs is said to give control. It is able to tolerate shade and drought, but only grows well in reasonable light and in moist fertile soils" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 112).

Chemical: Susceptible to: 1) fumigants, including methyl bromide, DD and chloropicrin at standard concentrations; 2) residual herbicides, including bromacil, EPTC, hexazinone, terbacil, pebulate and vernolate at standard rates; 3) translocated herbicides, including glyphosate, amitrole, DSMA, MSMA and 2,4-D, although control is often disappointing" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 112).

Biological: "Many attempts have been made at biological control, but no significant improvement appears to have resulted" (Waterhouse and Norris, 1987; pp. 300-307).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 20 MAR 2013.