Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyperus ligularis
L., Cyperaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Mariscus ligularis (L.) Urb.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Caribbean sedge, rocket sedge, swamp flatsedge

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Herbs, perennial, solitary or cespitose, rhizomatous, coarse. Culms trigonous, (30-) 60-130 cm x 1-4 (-9) mm, densely papillose, otherwise glabrous. Leaves with cross ribs prominent, V-shaped, 30-100 cm x 5-13 (-20) mm, margins, keel incisive with brownish prickles, papillose throughout, margins and midribs harshly scabrid. Inflorescences: spikes 3-7, densely oblong-cylindric to ± globose, 10-28 (-35) x 8-12 (-15) mm; rays 5-12, 1-16 cm, densely papillose; bracts 5-12, ascending at 30-75°, flat to V-shaped, 4-50 (-90) cm x 1-15 mm; rachilla deciduous, wings persistent, (0.2-) 0.3-0.5 (-0.6) mm. Spikelets 20-80, oblong-ellipsoid, ± terete, slightly compressed, 3-7 x 1-2 (-2.7) mm; distal spikelets spreading or ascending; floral scales (2-) 4-7, appressed, clear to brownish, reddish streaked, medially green, 9-11-ribbed, ovate, (2-) 2.5-3.3 x 1.2-2.3 mm, apex acute, mucronate. Flowers: anthers 0.6-0.8 mm, styles 0.5-1 mm; stigmas 1-2.3 mm. Achenes brown, slightly stipitate, obovoid to broadly ellipsoid, (1.2-) 1.5-1.6 (-1.7) x 0.6-0.8 mm, apex apiculate, surfaces puncticulate"  (Flora of North America online).

"Robust plants, rhizomes short, clump-forming, culms to 100 cm tall; leaves 5-12 mm wide; bracteal leaves elongate; inflorescence of several short branches bearing very dense, short subcylindric spikes; spikelets 4-6 mm long, dark reddish-brown, the glumes obtuse; achene obovate, sharply trigonal, 1.5 mm long, slightly papillose, dark brown" (Stone, 1970; pp. 169-170).

Habitat/ecology:  "Beaches, brackish marshes, mangrove swamps, disturbed soils, ditches, riverbanks, coastal croplands; 0 m"  (Flora of North America online).  "In wet sand of seashore and wet open grassland near the coast" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; p. 806).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America and Africa, including Madagascar (Stone, 1970; pp. 169-170).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 67)
Presence not verified.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 67)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 169-170)
Voucher cited: Stone 4053 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 67)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1994) (voucher ID: PTBG 22349)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus ligularis L.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 37)
Potentially invasive.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 146)
Vouchers cited: Stoddart 785 (K, US), Stoddart 878 (K, US), Rhyne 661 (US)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 23)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 44850)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus ligularis
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Addu Atoll   Spicer, R. A./Newberry, D. MacC. (1979) (p. 14)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 120)
Vouchers cited: Wiehe 1605 (MAU), Stoddart 7248 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Alphonse Island   Robertson, I. A. D./Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 180)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2878 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 148)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3055 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island native
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52119 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: Gwynne & Wood 960 (EA), Stoddart 7191 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Desnoeufs Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 208)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 49)
Voucher cited: Procter 4175
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Marie-Louise Island   Wilson, J. R. (1983) (p. 191)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 160)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3041 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Poivre Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2340 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
St. Joseph Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Stoddart 7141 (US)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Extensively naturalizing on Majuro, Marshall Islands (Nancy Vander Velde, pers. com.).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 24 JAN 2013.