Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Cyperus involucratus
Roxb., Cyperaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cyperus alternifolius L. subsp. flabelliformis Kük.; Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: feng che cao

English: dwarf papyrus grass, flat sedge, umbrella papyrus, umbrella plant, umbrella sedge

French: souchet à feuilles alternes

Hawaiian: ‘ahu‘awa haole, pu‘uka‘a haole

Spanish: juncia de estanque, quitasol chino

Habit:  sedge

Description:  "Robust plants, tufted, with culms up to 12-0 cm tall; involucral bracts large, leaflike, crowded in a close spiraled arrangement at ends of culms, up to 30 cm long and 2 cm wide; umbels to 7 cm broad, on rays up to 10 cm long; spikes about 3 cm long, spikelets pale green, crowded at the tip of the ray; achenes trigonal" (Stone, 1970; pp. 167-168).

"Tall perennial, with short, woody rhizome; culms subdensely tufted, 50-150 cm tall, obtusely trigonous to nearly terete below, scabrous below the corymb, clothed at base with bladeless sheaths only; basal sheaths pale greenish, 10-20 long, ample, subdense, 15-30 cm across, decompound; primary rays numerous, slender, 7-10 cm long, each bearing 4-10 raylets 1-1.5 cm long; leafy bracts many, nearly equal in length, about twice as long as corymb, stiff, flattish, 2-12 mm broad, sub-abruptly acute at apex; spikelets clustered at apices of raylets, lance-oblong to elliptic, flattened, 3-9 mm long, 1.7-3 mm broad, densely 6-30-flowered, light green; rachilla not winged; glumes ovate, acute at apex, about 2 mm long, membranous, pale green and variegated with rusty-brown, 3- or 5-nerved, the keel prominent; achenes ovate-elliptic, 3-sided, 1/3 to 1/4 as long as glume, maturing brown; style nearly as long as achene; stigmas 3, elongated; stamens 3" (Smith, 1979; p. 251).

Habitat/ecology:  Wet places at low elevations. In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized in marshy areas and along streams, 0-460 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1395, 1899). In New Caledonia, "peu cultivé mais occupe parfois des superficies importantes en terrain humide" (MacKee, 1994; p. 47). In New Zealand, "spread by seed from garden centres and domestic gardens and is proving a persistent weed, with Carex comans, in roadside gutter channels" (Healy & Edgar, 1980; p. 187).

Propagation:  Seed, rhizomes.

Native range:  Tropical Africa and the Arabian peninsula; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Field notes.)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 204)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"In damp soil as an escape from cultivation". Voucher cited: J. Pickard 1207 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"In damp soil as an escape from cultivation". Voucher cited: W.R. Sykes NI 661 (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 481, 527, 553)
"Está presente en un único jardin del pueblo de San Juan Bautista".
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81953)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81958)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 110170)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 110171)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 110790)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1978) (voucher ID: PTBG 41595)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 7)
As Cyperus alternifolius L. subsp. flabelliformis (Rottb.) Kük. C.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 41)
As Cyperus alternifolius L. subsp. flabelliformis Kük
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 251)
Vouchers cited: DA 10891, Greenwood 985, DA 1210, DA L.11695, DA 10848
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 34171)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1943) (voucher ID: BISH 110450)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 314)
Vouchers cited: Moore 154, Florence 3679
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492143)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 314)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 149
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6610 (PAP)
Ornementale peu commune.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Moruroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 167-168)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4383 (GUAM), Nelson 550, G.E.S. 210
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 110537)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 110540)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1919) (voucher ID: BISH 110541)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: C. Imada 99-26 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1395, 1899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./James, Shelly A./Kennedy, Barbara H. (2008) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: C. Imada, S. James & P. Imada 2007-18 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1395, 1899)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2007) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H80506 (BISH, PTBG).
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1395, 1899)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
invasive
Toyoda, Takeshi (2003) (p. 295)
Naturalized
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 11)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 104)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 37)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 49)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 47)
Cyperus alternifolius L.; vouchers cited: Franc 1300, Buchholz 1492, MacKee 2545, MacKee 25699, MacKee 28758. Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.; voucher cited: MacKee 27697
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1982) (voucher ID: PTBG 22984)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus alternifolius
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 226)
Voucher cited: CHR 150610
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 41)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 23)
Voucher: Flynn 6698 (PTBG, US, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9906 (BISH)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 30170)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 65)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (pp. 12, 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 110509)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus involucratus Roxb.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 98)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus alternifolius L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 1046)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyperus alternifolius L.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 105)
Cultivated for ornamental purposes, occasional in waste places but scarcely established.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 12)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 84)
Voucher cited: Ilolahia 127
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 68)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15199
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nui Atoll   Woodroffe, C. D. (1985) (p. 10)
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1395, 1899)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 25)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 3)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Hafliger, E. (1092) (p. 10)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated as an ornamental in China, sometimes escaped and naturalized along streams and in wet thickets and disturbed areas; below 400 m. Guangdong, Hunan
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 309)
As Cyperus flabelliformis Rottb.
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 187)
Voucher cited: H. B. Matthews (CHR 5173)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 31)
Cyperus alternifolius L. Cultivated only.
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated as an ornamental, sometimes escaped and naturalized along streams and in wet thickets and disturbed areas; below 400 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 111)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Common along streamsides on Rarotonga and invading wet areas on Aitutaki, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Very prevalent in wet areas, Tongatapu, Tonga (Space & Flynn, 2001).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 18 MAR 2013.