Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cynosurus echinatus
L., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: bristly dogstail grass, rough dog's-tail

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 10-100 cm long; 2-6 -noded. Leaf-sheaths without keel; glabrous on surface. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 5-10 mm long; obtuse. Leaf-blades 5-20 cm long; 3-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scabrous; rough adaxially. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle contracted; oblong, or ovate, or globose; secund; 1-8 cm long; 1-2 cm wide. Panicle branches smooth. Spikelets in pairs, or in threes. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets sessile; 1-2 in the cluster. Sterile spikeltes: Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; containing empty lemmas; obovate; laterally compressed; 7-13 mm long; longer than fertile; persistent. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 6-18; exserted from glumes; 2.5-5 mm long (lanceolate); 1-awned; with 1.4-3 mm long awn. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1-5 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 8-14 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets. Lower glume lanceolate; 7-12 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex attenuate. Upper glume lanceolate; 7-12 mm long; 1.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 2 -veined. Upper glume apex attenuate. Florets: Fertile lemma ovate; 5-7 mm long; coriaceous; without keel; 5 -veined. Lemma surface scabrous; rough above. Lemma apex entire, or dentate; 2 -fid; obtuse; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical, or from a sinus; 6-16 mm long overall; limb scabrous. Rhachilla extension 0.25 length of fertile floret. Flower: Anthers 3; 2.5-4 mm long. Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong; 3-4 mm long. Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform"  (GrassBase).

Description from Flora of New Zealand.

Habitat/ecology:  In New Zealand, "on roadsides, waste land, in pasture and crops, and on hillsides in grassland; lowland to montane"  (Edgar & Connor, 2000; p. 94).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Canary and Madeira Islands, northern Africa, Europe, central and western Asia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
"Weed of waste and cultivated areas".
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 94)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control:  Herbicide resistance in Chile.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 8 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 3 APR 2011.