Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cynodon dactylon
(L.) Pers., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 22 (Go to the risk assessment).

Common name(s): [more details]

Bontoc: babbalut

Chinese: gou ya gen

English: Australian couch, Bahama grass, balama grass, Bermuda grass, common couch, couch grass, devil's grass, devilgrass, dog's tooth grass, grama, green couch, hariali grass, Indian couch, Indian doab, plain couch, quick grass

Fijian: kabuta, kambuta

Filipino: kawad-kawaran

French: chiendent, chiendent dactyle, chiendent pied-de-poule, cynodon dactyle, grand chiendent, gros chiendent, herbe de couverture, herbes des Bermudes, pied de poule

Hawaiian: mānienie, mānienie haole

I-Kiribati: te uteute

Iloko: galud-galud

Japanese: gyogishiba

Mangarevan: matie

Maori (Cook Islands): matie ‘enua

Nauruan: ibugibugi

Niuean: mosie molulu, motie molulu

Spanish: agraisa, barenillo, grama Bermuda, grama brava, grama común, grama dulce, grama rastera, gramilla, gramilla brava, gramilla Italiana, hierba fina, paja de la virgen, palo delgado, pasto Argentina, pasto Bermuda, pasto de gallina, pasto de las Bermudas, pasto inglés, pata de perdiz, pelo de conejo, zacate de aguijilla, zacate de Bermuda, zacate de conejo, zacate de gallina, zacate gallina

Tagalog: kulatai

Tongan: musie vai

Tuvaluan: mouku

Habit:  grass

Description:  "A short-lived, prostrate, fine-leaved perennial grass that spreads by strong, flat stolons and scaly rhizomes to form a dense turf; stolons root readily at the nodes; culms erect or ascending, 5 to 45 cm (rarely to 90 or even 130 cm) tall, wiry, smooth, sometimes reddish, leaf sheaths up to 15 mm long, shorter than internodes, smooth; ligule a conspicuous ring of white hairs; blades 2 to 16 cm long, 3 to 5 mm wide, smooth or hairy on upper surface; inflorescence of three to seven sometimes purplish spikes in one whorl, in a fingerlike arrangement (digitately), 3 to 10 cm long, or in robust forms spikes up to 10, sometimes in two whorls; spikelets 2 to 3 mm long, in two rows tightly appressed to one side of the rachis; lemma boat-shaped, acute with fringe of hairs on the keel, longer than the glume; seed (grain) very small, 1.5 mm long, oval, straw-colored to orange-red, free within the lemma and palea"  (Holm et al., 1977; p. 25).

"Creeping perennial [grass], rooting at the nodes either on the surface of the ground (stolons) or underground (white rhizomes); culms slightly flattened, prostrate or somewhat ascending or erect; inflorescence purplish, digitate; leaf-blades short, usually 3-10 cm long, 3-6 cm wide, the edges rough.  Spikes 2-6, often 5 or 4, 2.5-7 cm long.  Spikelets imbricate, sessile, up to 3 mm long.  Lemma longer than either glume" (Stone, 1970; p. 194).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  "It is a warm-season grass, makes little growth in cold weather.  It prospers in the sun and dies out as shade increases.  The species is adapted to a wide range of soils from sand to heavy clay, but it thrives best on a medium to heavy soil which is moist and well drained.  It will grow on either acid or alkaline soils and can survive under flood conditions or drought.  In the tropics, it is found in areas of 600 to 1,800 mm of annual rainfall, but it is also a weed of arid lands where it thrives along rivers and in irrigated areas.  It can withstand long dry periods but is unproductive on dry soils (Holm et al., 1977; p. 25). "Common at lower altitudes throughout the warmer regions of the world. Frequently used for lawns and pastures." (Wiggins & Porter, 1971). Will grow in very poor soil.  In drought, dies above ground but will regrow from rhizomes.  Prefers warm, moist conditions. 

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and naturalized along roadsides and in exposed rocky or sandy sites, forming a solid mat where seepage may be present, 0-2,270 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999).  In Fiji, "widespread and common especially in dry areas of roadsides, riversides, and hillsides from sea level to 850 m.  Sometimes it forms dense mats on the upper parts of beaches and at edges of mangrove swamps"  (Smith, 1979).  In Tonga, "in lawns and grassy areas" (Yuncker, 1959).  In Papua New Guinea, "a common roadside grass, and useful for lawns in regions of moderate rainfall, but a weed of cultivation and plantations, and sometimes invading pastures to the exclusion of more productive grasses" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 37). In New Caledonia, "introduit vers 1854 et vite répandu; maintenant abondant" (MacKee, 1994).

Propagation:  "Bermudagrass reproduces by seed production and through runners and rhizomes. Its growth and development are promoted by warm moist conditions. Bermudagrass can produce up to 230 seeds/panicle during the first three months after the initiation of seed set (Perez and Labrada 1985). Seeds germinate at temperatures above 20"C (Burton undated) and emergence takes place within the next two weeks, with tillering occurring after 25-30 days. The complete cycle (germination to seed production) is around four months (Perez and Labrada 1985). Plants that develop from rhizomes and from stolons have a similar pattern of growth (Perez et al. 1985). A single shoot from a rhizome may cover 2.5 square m of soil surface in 150 days after its emergence (Perez and Labrada 1985)"  (Ecoport).

Native range:  Old world, apparently originally from southern Europe, now common world-wide as a lawn and pasture grass (Stone, 1970; p. 194).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 45)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Harris 336
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: W. Harris 336 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 123930)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3436, Bryan 946
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430390)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 34)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Whistler, W. A. (1980) (p. 163)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 419256)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island possibly native
invasive
abo. intro.
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"This may be a native or an early introduction on the Islands as it occurs in pastures, lawns and on the roadsides". Vouchers cited: R.D. Hoogland 8702 (CANB), A.N. Rodd 1813 (K, NSW), L.M. Bingley 14 (K)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island possibly native
invasive
abo. intro.
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"This may be a native or an early introduction on the Islands as it occurs in pastures, lawns and on the roadsides". Vouchers cited: R.D. Hoogland 6602 (CANB), M. Lazarides 8050 (CANB, K)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) native
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (p. 28)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 80)
Abundant everywhere, the common grass.
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 480-481, 527, 553)
Voucher cited: Danton H(1514)1275. "Lo colectamos en los pastos plantados del pueblo de San Juan Bautista, donde fue introducido con las mezclas utilizadas para el césped".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Agrigan (Agrihan) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 2163 (US), Falanruw 2187 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 123946)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Alamagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 1961 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (p. 46)
Var. parviglumis; vouchers cited: Raulerson 1135 (US, GUAM), Raulerson 1092 (US, GUAM)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Farallon de Medinilla (Marpi, Medinilla) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Vouchers cited: Anderson 512 (US, BISH), Anderson 583 (US, BISH, Fo, NY, L, P)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 637067)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 1000086)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 45-46)
Var. parviglumis; vouchers cited: Hosaka 2920 (US, BISH, QLD, NY), Fosberg 25174 (US, BISH, POM, K, MO)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 572595)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 41077)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 40600)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Evans 2438 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. maritimus (HBK) Hack.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 40596)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Penrhyn (Tongareva) Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 123917)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 666509)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Losap Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Nomwin (Nómwiin) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Satawan Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 123942)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 126)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 55)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ulithi Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 45-46)
var. parviglumis; voucher cited: Kanehira & Hatusima 4348 (FU)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Voucher cited: DA 5545
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Loma-i-Viti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 619100)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Voucher cited: DA 8895
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 31587)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Vouchers cited: DA 8752, DA 10458, DA 8839, DA 8864
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 1117
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 309-310)
Vouchers cited: DA 8258, Smith 4736, DA 8190, DA 2099, DA 7975, Smith 9465, DA 8646, DA 7884, DA 7923, DA 8429, DA 2731, DA 3537, Gillespie 3575, DA 7476, DA 8595
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1942) (voucher ID: BISH 31586)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 123934)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 123935)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 123936)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 123937)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 697536)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: St. John 14639 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Vouchers cited: St. John 14530 (BISH), St. John 14572 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Quayle & Curtis 478 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Eiao Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence , S.P. Perlman & M. Teikiteetini 9350 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000676)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 123908)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1963) (voucher ID: PTBG 8955)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558051)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 558052)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42490)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: K. R. Wood 6426 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 27255)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Grant 4872
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 12076 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1993) (voucher ID: BISH 662542)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 103)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11641 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643301)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island probably introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 64913 (US, BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 607778)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10251 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 103)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2127 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Moore 43
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: P. Morat 6948 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 103)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Grant 3695
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 36)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 1676 (US), Fosberg 63787 (US), Raynal 18019 (P)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1974
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tupai Island introduced
invasive
Sachet, M.-H. (1983) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Sachet 1974 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Hao (Hau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9074 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 560398)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10110 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 633774)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll   Doty, Maxwell S. (1954) (p. 26)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Raro‘ia Atoll introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Meyer, Jean-Yves/Fourdrigniez, Marie (2008) (p. 16)
Adventice d'introduction polynésienne.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
invasive
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Sachet 2011 (US)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7004 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10241 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 642084)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Toau (Tovau) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1990) (voucher ID: PTBG 38710)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5619 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552997)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6339 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6158 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552811)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 194)
Voucher cited: Stone 4081 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 123943)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 123945)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649559)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000151)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 40598)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
French Frigate Shoals introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1520-1521)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 11)
Common near quarters and near base of old LORAN tower.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 9)
Locally restricted to an area near camp, an area at the south end of the lagoon, an area near the coconut palms, and an area on the north end of the island.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Takeuchi & Imada 3251 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 19)
Southeast Island: Only 2 small patches about 3 m by 3 m and 2 m by 2 m were found on the east side. Both patches were seeding.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands   Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Malden Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 51622)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Malden Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 38257)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 16)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (p. 41)
In lawns.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Tabuaeran (Fanning) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 602809)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
cultivated
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 16)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 54, 78)
Lawns and waste places at the settlement. voucher cited: Bergman 94
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 603067)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Degener & Hateway 21286
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
Luomala, Katharine (1951) (p. 172)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 76)
Voucher: Imada 2003-159 (BISH 697770)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Abemama Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (2003) (voucher ID: BISH 697770)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 74)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1960) (p. 322)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 24397, Fosberg 24292, St. John 26312
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 24292 (US), Fosberg 24379 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 576855)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Enewetak (Ãnewetak, Eniwetok) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 40595)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kili (Kõle) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2006) (p. 3)
"Common; grassy areas and fields, no flowers observed".
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 81)
Vouchers cited: Wagner 3383, Bergseng s.n., Fosberg 41378a, Herbst 8978, Whistler 11180
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 3)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 26489 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 38843)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 527514)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1946) (voucher ID: PTBG 40594)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1998) (voucher ID: PTBG 43969)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 2)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 36726 (US)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Likiep Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 123947)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
invasive
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 49)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 68)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58625 (US), Hassall 270 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
Îles Chesterfield
Îles Chesterfield introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Kusser in MacKee 34036
New Caledonia
Récifs D'Entrecasteaux (D'Entrecasteaux Reefs)
Île Surprise introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 43872
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Vite répandue; maintenant abondante.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Loyauté (Loyalty Islands) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Walpole introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Cherrier in MacKee 43799
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Vite répandue; maintenant abondante.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Belep introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Vite répandue; maintenant abondante.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Vouchers cited: Vieillard 1492, MacKee 34673 (forma robuste "Alicia grass")
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Vite répandue; maintenant abondante.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 510)
"Usually coastal in sandy or gravelly places, in pasture, scrub, or on tracksides, often between dunes or in reclamation areas; also a weed of lawns, and in waste land, on roadsides or gutter crevices".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 165)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 238)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168763, CHR 168765, CHR 168766, CHR 168784, CHR 168811
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 49)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 54)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 10151 (BISH), Yuncker 10225 (BISH)
"Common as a lawn grass and also along roadsides and in waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 95)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 88)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
var. maritimus
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Also var. parviglumis per Fosberg.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1982) (pp. 45-46)
Var. parviglumis; vouchers cited: Hill 19 (US, BISH), Otobed PW-10129 (US), Hosaka 3327 (US, BISH, L)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1978) (voucher ID: BNM 10129)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 40592)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 35)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 90)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 52)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 37)
From sea level to at least 1800 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 60)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 83-84)
In open grasslands, fallow rice paddies, waste places, at low and medium altitudes; common.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 12)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 683 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10762 (PAP)
Adventice
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 641264)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1894) (voucher ID: BISH 123931)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 402173)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 506071)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 62)
Tokelau
Tokelau Islands
Tokelau Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘afeva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 640418)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Kotu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 440418)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 55)
"Throughout Tonga"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 98)
Voucher cited: Soakai 993 (EI)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 277, Soakai 358, Soakai 689, Soakai 735
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 55)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 634
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 55)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 61)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Baker Island
Baker Island introduced
invasive
Christophersen, Erling (1927) (pp. 70, 78)
Voucher cited: Christophersen 24
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Baker Island
Baker Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1935) (voucher ID: BISH 636994)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 52)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1520)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R. (1959) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 34931
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1969) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: Sachet 873 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1955) (p. 3)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 34450 (US), Fosberg 34931 (US)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 659982)
Taxon name on voucher: Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 88)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 49)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
China
China
China (People's Republic of)   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open disturbed situations, roadsides, field margins, and cultivated as a lawn grass; sea level to 2500 m. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 330)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 112)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 112)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 112)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 112)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 510)
"Usually coastal in sandy or gravelly places, in pasture, scrub, or on tracksides, often between dunes or in reclamation areas; also a weed of lawns, and in waste land, on roadsides or gutter crevices".
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 31)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open disturbed situations, roadsides, field margins, and cultivated as a lawn grass; sea level to 2500 m.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
invasive
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 77)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 111)
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islands introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1993) (p. 38)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
Topp, J. M. W. (1988) (p. 17)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 24)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (pp. 29-30)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 131)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Coetivy Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 152)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3089 (K)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
D'Arros Island   Stoddart, D. R./Coe, M. J./Fosberg, F. R. (1979) (p. 19)
Voucher cited: Gwynne & Wood 1011 (EA)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 57)
Vouchers cited: Procter 4157, Procter 4250
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Platte Island   Robertson, S. A./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 162)
Voucher cited: Robertson 3002 (K)

Control:  Additional control information from the Bugwood Wiki.

Physical:  "Small patches can be dug out but all rhizomes and stolons must be removed.  Solarization by plastic sheeting is used in sunny locations".

Chemical:  "Young plants are effectively controlled by applying paraquat, or glyphosate applied in spring or autumn when rhizomes are growing"  (Weber, 2003; p. 132).

Additional information:
Information from the Bugwood Wiki.
Information from the Purdue University NewCROP web site.

Additional online information about Cynodon dactylon is available from the Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR).

Information about Cynodon dactylon as a weed (worldwide references) may be available from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW).

Taxonomic information about Cynodon dactylon may be available from the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN).

References:

Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 479 pp.

Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John. 2011. Naturalized species in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile. Unpublished spreadsheet.

Australian National Botanic Gardens. 2013. Australian plant common name database. Online resource.

Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.). 1978. Voucher specimen #BNM10129(Otobed, D.O. PW-10130).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 0. Voucher specimen #BISH 123945 (Thompson, J.B. 237).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1894. Voucher specimen #BISH 123931 (Reinecke 316).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1918. Voucher specimen #BISH 123943 (Nelson, P. 217).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1927. Voucher specimen #BISH 123937 (John W. Gillespie 3575).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1928. Voucher specimen #BISH 697536 (Gillespie, J.W.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 123908 (Mumford, E.P. 261).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1929. Voucher specimen #BISH 123917 (Wilder, G.P. 1056).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 123942 (Takamatsu, M. 215).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1935. Voucher specimen #BISH 636994 (A.F.Judd 104).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 123930 (Harris, W. 2385).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1938. Voucher specimen #BISH 619100 (St.John, H. 19748).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1942. Voucher specimen #BISH 31586 (Parham, B.E. 2731).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 123934 (Smith, A.C. 4736).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1947. Voucher specimen #BISH 402173 (Giffen 7).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1952. Voucher specimen #BISH 123946 (Kondo, Y.; collector's voucher number unknown).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 123935 (Smith, A.C. 9465).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1953. Voucher specimen #BISH 123936 (Smith, A.C. 9622).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1954. Voucher specimen #BISH 31587 (Koroiveibau, D. 8895).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1956. Voucher specimen #BISH 123947 (Fosberg, F.R. 36726).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1958. Voucher specimen #BISH 576855 (St.John, H. 26312).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1960. Voucher specimen #BISH 38843 (Fosberg, F.R. 41378a).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1965. Voucher specimen #BISH 51622 (Long, C.R. 3390).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 419256 (Whistler, W.A. W3300).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1976. Voucher specimen #BISH 430390 (Whistler, W.A. W3436).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 440418 (G.Buelow 3248).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 558051 (Florence, J. 4167).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 558052 (Florence, J. 4167).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 602809 (Wester, L. 2061B).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1982. Voucher specimen #BISH 640418 (Beulow, G. 3248).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 552811 (Florence, J. 6158).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 552997 (Florence, J. 5619).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 603067 (Wester, L. 2192).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 649559 (Herbst, D.R. 7184).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1983. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000151 (Herbst, D.R. 7184).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 572595 (Raulerson, L. 6911).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 637067 (Herbst, D.R. 7261).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1984. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000086 (Herbst, D.R. 7261).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 506071 (Krauss, N.L.H. 1791).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1985. Voucher specimen #BISH 607778 (Fosberg, F.R. 64913).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 527514 (Herbst, D.R. 8978).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 560398 (Florence, J. 9074).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1988. Voucher specimen #BISH 1000676 (W.L.Wagner 6205).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 633774 (Florence 10110).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 642084 (Florence 10241).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1990. Voucher specimen #BISH 666509 (Sykes, W.R. 467842B).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1991. Voucher specimen #BISH 641264 (Florence 10762).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1992. Voucher specimen #BISH 643301 (Florence 11641).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1993. Voucher specimen #BISH 662542 (Florence 12076).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 1994. Voucher specimen #BISH 659982 (Herbst, D.R. 9691).

Bishop Museum (Honolulu). 2003. Voucher specimen #BISH 697770 (C.Imada 2003-159).

Burkill, I. H. 1900. The flora of Vavau, one of the Tonga Islands, with a short account of its vegetation by Charles Steele Crosby. Lin. Jour. Bot. 35:20-65.

Cardenas, Juan/Reys, Carlos E./Doll, Jerry D./Pardo, Fernando. 1972. Tropical weeds; malezas tropicales, vol. 1. International Plant Protection Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis. 341 pp.

Charles Darwin Foundation. 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Galapagos, Ecuador.

Charles Darwin Research Station. 2005. CDRS Herbarium records.

Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. 273 pp.

Christophersen, Erling. 1927. Vegetation of the Pacific equatorial islands. Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 44 [Whippoorwill Expedition publication 2]. Honolulu. 79 pp.

Clayton, W. D./Harman, K. T./Williamson, H. 2002. World Grass Species: Descriptions, Identification, and Information Retrieval (online resource).

Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido. 2006. Nouveau catalogue de la flore vaculaire de l'archipel Juan Fernández (Chile) [Nuevo catálogo de la flora vacular del Archipélago Juan Fernández (Chile)]. Acta Bot. Gallica 153(4):399-587.

Doty, Maxwell S. 1954. Floristic and Ecological Notes on Raroia Atoll, Tuamotus. Land biota: vascular plants. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 33. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 41 pp.

EcoPort Foundation. 2013. EcoPort (on-line resource).

Edgar, E./Connor, H. 2000. Flora of New Zealand, vol. V: Gramineae. Manaaki Whenua Press. .

Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). (online resource).

Fosberg, F. R. 1955. Northern Marshall Islands Expedition, 1951-1952. Land biota: vascular plants. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 39. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 22 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Vegetation and flora of Wake Island. Atoll Research Bulletin 67. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 20 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1959. Additional records of phanerogams from the northern Marshall Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 68. Pacific Science Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington. 9 pp.

Fosberg, F. R. 1997. Preliminary checklist of the flowering plants and ferns of the Society Islands. Ed. by David R. Stoddart. U. Cal. Berkeley.

Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. 1975. Vascular flora of the northern Marianas Islands. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 22:1-45.

Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce. 1989. New collections and notes on the plants of Henderson, Pitcairn, Oeno, and Ducie Islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 329. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 18 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1969. Wake Island vegetation and flora, 1961-1963. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 123. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 15 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1982. Micronesian Poaceae: Critical and distributional notes. Micronesica 18(2):45-102.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. 1987. Flora of Maupiti, Society Islands. The Smithsonian Institution. Atoll Research Bulletin 294:1-70.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce. 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesica 20:1-126.

Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. 1983. List of the recorded vascular flora of Agalega. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. 1994. Flora of the Phoenix Islands, central Pacific. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. Atoll Research Bulletin 393. 60 pp.

Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe. 1996. Conséquences des introductions d'espèces animales et végétales sur la biodiversité en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Rev. Ecol. (Terre Vie) 51:375-401.

Glassman, S. F. 1952. The flora of Ponape. Bishop Mus. Bull. 209: 1-152.

Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar. 1980. Grass weeds, vol. 2. CIBA-GEIGY Ltd., Basle, Switzerland. 137 pp. + plates.

Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Honiara. 203 pp.

Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. 2nd edition. Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bull. No. 7. Lae, Papua New Guinea. 180 pp.

Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. 1998. Notes on the grasses of Hawai‘i: new records, corrections, and name changes. In: Evenhuis, Neal L. and Miller, Scott, E., eds. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 1997. Part 1: Articles. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 55:17-38.

Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia, in press. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawai‘i. 146 pp.

Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. 1977. The world’s worst weeds: distribution and biology. East-West Center/University Press of Hawaii. 609 pp.

Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. John Wiley & Sons, New York. 391 pp.

Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. 2002. Invasive/weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. In: Invasive species and their management. Micronesica Suppl. 6:61-65.

Kato, Hidetoshi. 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University. Personal communication.

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Luomala, Katharine. 1951. Plants of Canton Island, Phoenix Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 20(11):157-174.

MacKee, H. S. 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, 164 p.

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Meyer, Jean-Yves. 2008. Rapport de mission d'expertise a Rapa Nui du 02 au 11 Juin 2008: Plan d'action strategique pour lutter contre les plantes introduites envahissantes sur Rapa Nui (Île de pâques) [Strategic action plan to control invasive alien plants on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) [unpublished report]. Délégation à la Recherche, Ministère de l'Education, l'Enseignement supérieur et la Recherche, B.P. 20981 Papeete, Tahiti, Polynésie française. 62 pp. .

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Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. 1985. Contribution à la connaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis & Futuna. Bull. Mus. Natn. Hist. Nat., Paris, 4e sér., 7, section B. Adansonia 3 : 259-329.

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Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty]. 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae, Papua New Guinea. 638 pp. ISBN 9980-66-000-7.

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Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. 1983. Vegetation of Frégate Island, Seychelles. In: Sachet, M. H., D. R. Stoddart, and F. R. Fosberg. Floristics and ecology of Western Indian Ocean islands. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 273. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 253 pp.

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Sachet, M.-H. 1983. Botanique de l'ile de Tupai, Iles de la Societe. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 276. Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 26 pp. + photos.

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Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate. 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity. 80 pp.

Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar. 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu. 174 pp.

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Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition. Bernice P. Bishop Museum special publication. University of Hawai‘i Press/Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 1919 pp. (two volumes).

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Whistler, W. A. 1991. The ethnobotany of Tonga: The plants, their Tongan names, and their uses. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Botany 2. Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu. 155 pp. ISBN 0-930897-57-9.

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