Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cynara cardunculus
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: artichoke, artichoke thistle, cardoon, castilla's thistle, globe artichoke, Scottish thistle, Spanish artichoke, wild artichoke

French: artichaut commun

Spanish: alcachofa, alcaucil, cardo, cardo de castilla, cardo de comer, cardo penquero

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Taproots fleshy. Stems glabrous to densely arachnoid-tomentose. Leaves: basal blades 30-200 cm, margins deeply 1-2-pinnately lobed or divided to nearly compound, lobes oblong to lanceolate, entire to coarsely toothed, teeth and lobes innocuous to prominently spine-tipped, spines 1-30 mm, often clustered along petiole and at base of lobes, abaxial faces densely gray- or white-tomentose, adaxial faces thinly cobwebby-tomentose; cauline leaves often short-decurrent as spiny wings. Involucres often purplish tinged, 30-150 x 40-150 mm excluding spreading phyllary tips, constricted distally or not. Phyllaries lanceolate to broadly ovate, bases appressed, spreading apices obtuse to acute or acuminate, spineless or tipped with spines 1-9 mm or truncate, abruptly mucronate, and spineless or minutely spine-tipped. Corollas blue or purple (rarely white), 3-5 cm; styles long-exserted. Cypselae 4-8 mm; pappus bristles 2-4 cm"  (Flora of North America online).

Habitat/ecology:  "Grasslands, rangeland, reparian habitats, disturbed sites.  Where invasive, the species grows in dense populations with up to 22,000 plants per acre, displacing native vegetation, reducing species diversity and making an impassable barrier for wildlife.  Establishment depends on disturbance but once established, the plant persists and dominates the vegetation, competes for soil moisture and nutrients, and shades out native species"  (Weber, 2003; p. 131). 

In Australia, "weed of roadsides, wasteland and pastures, mostly in clayey soils"  (NSW PlantNET).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:   Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys. Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months. precipitations of 400 - 800 mm. are concentrated in winter; Dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months, precipitations of 100 mm - 300 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  "Seeds are usually not dispersed over long distances and fall mainly within a few meters of the plants, although they may be dispersed by animals and water"  (Weber, 2003; p. 131).

Native range:  Canary Islands, North Africa, southern Europe (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 34)
Voucher cited: MacKee 21964
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Belov, Michail (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guanajuato, Michoacan, Queretaro
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 312)
"Waste land, a garden escape or discard".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Scattered plants may be grubbed but much of the taproot must be removed to prevent regrowth.  Seedlings can be pulled by hand".

Chemical:  "Several herbicides are used; e.g. glyphosate, picloram, or dicamba.  MCPA is used for selective control of seedlings in grassland"  (Weber, 2003; p. 131).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 23 JAN 2011 and was last updated on 3 APR 2011.