Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cymbopogon refractus
(R.Br.) A.Camus, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Andropogon refractus R. Br.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: barbwire grass, soap grass, turpentine grass

Fijian: othangithangi, ramba, thoyangiyangi

Tahitian: aretu monoi, aretu noanoa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Densely tufted perennials; culms 25-75 cm tall, nodes purple, glabrous.  Sheaths 2-7 mm long, glabrous to sparsely pubescent, striate, the basal ones purple to pink, more or less persistent; ligule 1-2 mm long, membranous, erose; blades narrowly linear, 15-25 cm long, ca. 1.5 mm wide, wiry, scabrous.  Inflorescences 10-30 cm long, narrow, the branches erect, racemes well-spaced, each pair partly enclosed in a slightly inflated pink or bronze spathe 2-3 mm long, racemes 2-3 cm long, slender, reflexed, rachis joints and pedicels flattened, hispid on the angles; sessile spikelets narrowly lanceolate, 4.5-5.5 mm long, acuminate, callus short-bearded, first glume strongly 2-keeled, 9-nerved, acuminate, glabrous, second glume slightly shorter, 1-keeled, 7-nerved, acute to acuminate, sterile lemma hyaline 4-4.5 mm long, acuminate, fertile lemma 3.5-4 mm long, keeled toward apex, acute and awnless, palea absent; pedicellate spikelet sterile, 3.5-5 mm long, attenuate, glabrous, first glume usually 11-nerved, second glume 2/3 as long as first glume, 3-nerved, acute, lemma absent.  Caryopsis narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 2.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1519, 1906).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in pastures, along roadsides, and in dry, disturbed sites, 0-1,110 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1519, 1906).  In Fiji, "moderately common throughout the archipelago from sea level to about 900 m, occurring on open hillsides, reed- and fern-covered slopes, in thin forest, on rocky shores and sandy beaches, and in waste places" (Smith, 1979; p. 379). In Tonga, "uncommon in sunny areas and on limestone cliffs" (Whistler, 1992; p. 98).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Australia (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1519, 1906).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island native
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: M. Lazarides 8065 (CANB, K)., R.M. Laing (CHR)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kanathea Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Vouchers cited: DA 8982, DA 9078
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Voucher cited: Smith 1390
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Olorua Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Voucher cited: Bryan 521
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Totoya Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Vouchers cited: DA 8723, DA 8793, Smith 6810
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Vouchers cited: DA 8237, DA 8272, Smith 4266, DA 8199, Degener 14960, DA 2092, DA 5981, DA 8104, DA 2501, DA 9955
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 379)
Voucher cited: St. John 18102
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Grant 5044
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Moore 101
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5786 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6326 (PAP), J. Florence 6428 (PAP)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1519)
Voucher cited: Shipman s. n. (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1519)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Nagata 3716 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1519)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1519)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: St. John 22794 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1519)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Hotta 5554, Whistler 7480
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 16069, Hotta 4752 (n.s.)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island native
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 66)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16069
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Victoria
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  A similar species, C. nardus (L.) Rendle (common names kamapue, citronella grass), has been reported from Niue (Sykes, 1970; p. 238).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.