Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cymbalaria muralis
Gaertn., Mey. & Scherb., Plantaginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Antirrhinum cymbalaria L.; Linaria cymbalaria (L.) Mill.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: coliseum ivy, ivy-leaf toadflax, Kenilworth ivy, mother-of-thousands, Oxford-ivy, pennywort, wandering-sailor

French: ruine de Rome

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems filiform, decumbent, sometimes rooting at the nodes, 3-6 dm long, glabrous or sometimes with a few scattered hairs on young parts.  Leaves alternate, reniform to semicircular, 12-55 mm long, 15-65 mm wide, 5-9-lobed, the lobes broadly deltate, rounded, usually mucronate.  Calyx 2-2.5 mm long; corolla violet, with a yellow palate, 9-15 mm long, spur 1.5-3 mm long.  Capsules ca. 4 mm in diameter.  Seeds black, broadly ellipsoid to globose, ca. 1 mm in diameter, with high ridges and usually a few tubercles"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1240).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "apparently very recently naturalized, first collected in 1986, and presently known only from 790-950 m, in a gulch east of Pi‘iholo Road, Olinda, East Maui" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1240).

Propagation:  Seed and rooting from nodes.

Native range:  "Native from the southern Alps to Italy" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1240). Switzerland, Italy and the Balkans; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 553)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1240)
Vouchers cited: Hobdy 2549, Hobdy 2550 (BISH)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 1182)
"Cultivation escape, on shady banks, walls, amongst rocks, mostly in the vicinity of buildings".


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This page was created on 29 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.