Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyclophyllum barbatum
(G.Forst.) N.Halle & Florence, Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 1 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Cyclophyllum barbatum)

Other Latin names:  Canthium barbatum (G.Forst.) Seem.; Chiococca barbata Forst. f.; Cyclophyllum barbatum (Forst. f.) A.C. Smith and S.P. Darwin; Plectronia barbata (Forst. f.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Drake; Plectronia marquisensis F. Br.; Plectronia rapae Riley

Common name(s): [more details]

Samoan: ola?

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Slender tree to 10m, trunk to 20cm&?#8856;, with a topknot of short horizontal branches. LEAVES opposite, along branch in one plane to adjacent pairs at right angles (=decussate); wide-oval, to 9x5cm, glossy green with network of pale veins; edges smooth, base tapering, tip drawn-out and acute; stalk short, to 5mm. FLOWERS axillary, small cluster; each stalked, small, 7mm&?#8856;; petals 5 oval, white to cream. FRUITS tear-shaped tapering to base, to 15mm, ripen red; seeds 1-2." (Cook Islands Biodiversity Database)

"Shrub or small tree up to 6 m in height (up to 15 m in Fiji), with straight, spreading branches, glabrous stems, and broadly deltoid, attenuate-tipped interperiolar stipules up to 5 mm long. Leaves simple, opposite, blade coreaceous, elliptic to suborbicular, 5-14 cm long, acute to narrowly cuneate and shortly decurrent at the base, acute or acuminate to rounded at the tip; surfaces glabrous, upper side darker, lower side with conspicuous domatia in the axils of the secondary veins; margins entire; petiole 3-10 mm long. Inflorescence a several-flowered axillary fascicle, sessile or on a short branch up to 5 mm long. Calyx cup-shaped, 1-1.5 mm long, minutely 5-toothed, on a pedicel 4-12 mm long at anthesis (up to 2 cm long in fruit). Corolla salverform, white turning pale yellow, tube 4-7 mm long, densely hairy in the throat, limb of 5 (6?) spreading, ovate to lanceolate lobes 2.5-4 mm long. Ovary inferior; style as long as the tube, with a slightly exserted capitate stigma. Stamens as many as corolla lobes, epipetalous, with the anthers at the top of the throat. Fruit a red to orange, laterally compressed, obovoid drupe 9-13 mm long and nearly as wide. Flowering and fruiting occur throughout the year. ¶Distinguishable by its small tree habit; opposite leaves with interpetiolar stipules; domatia in the axils of secondary veins of the underside of the leaves; axillary fascicles of small white flowers aging to yellow; and red to orang, 2-seeded, laterally compressed, obovoid fruit on a stalk up to 2 cm long." (Rainforest Trees of Samoa, p. 136)

Habitat/ecology:  "It is occasional to common in Samoa in coastal to foothill forest and in montane scrub on the three [sic] largest islands, Manono, and Apolima, reported from near sea level to 450 m elevation." (Rainforest Trees of Samoa, p. 136)

Propagation:  (no propagation information known by PIER)

Native range:  Caroline Islands; Solomon Islands; Markesas [sic] Islands; southern Cook Islands (Rarotonga and the Makatea Islands) (Cook Islands Biodiversity Database)

"This tree is indigenous to Samoa and ranges from Fiji to the Marquesas. Its eastern Polynesian range includes the Society Islands, Cook Islands, the Austral Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotus, Henderson Island, and Pitcairn Island. Its western Polynesian range also includes Tonga." (Rainforest Trees of Samoa, p. 136)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Thakaundrove Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
Austral Islands (Tuha'a Pae) native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Marquesas Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Society Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tuamotu Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific
Oceania
Micronesia   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Henderson Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Samoa
Samoa
Samoa native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Apolima Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Manono Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 136)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Pentecôte (Pentacost) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
New Zealand
New Zealand
North Island (NZ)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)

Control:  (control info not known by PIER)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.