Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cyathula prostrata
(L.) Blume, Amaranthaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Achyranthes prostrata L.; Desmochaeta prostrata (L.) DC.; Pupalia prostrata (L.) Mart.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: bei xian

English: cyathula, pastureweed

Japanese: inokodutimodoki

Maori (Cook Islands): mata kura, mata kura

Marquesan: akatou, ea mata, fefeimata

Pohnpeian: osen likendinikep, oson likan tinkap, oson-likantikap

Samoan: la‘au maneso, la‘au tālātālā, lau talatala, manutoga

Tahitian: akii, mamau, mata ura, oroura, toroua, toroura

Tongan: toloma‘unga

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus:" Perennial herbs or undershrubs; leaves opposite, the blades entire; flowers clustered, the clusters (in our species) on rachis of a long raceme on short, jointed stalks, deflexed after anthesis, the perfect flowers in each cluster 1-3, accompanied by 1 or more imperfect, sterile flowers reduced to fascicled hooks, the distal flowers solitary, without hooks; tepals of perfect flowers 5, oblong, short-acuminate, with scariose margins, longitudinally nerved; stamens 5, the filaments proximally connate into a short cup, the free parts alternating with shorter, dentate or lacerate pseudostaminodes, the anthers 2-celled (4-loculed); ovary obovoid, the ovule 1, pendulous from a long funicle, the style filiform, the stigma capitate; utricle ellipsoid, thin-walled, indehiscent, 1-seeded" (Smith, 1981; pp. 289-290).

Species:  A herb 0.3-1 m high, subligneous toward base and with a long taproot (Smith, 1981; pp. 289-290). "Annuals, the herbace puberulent with curved hairs; stems creeping-ascending, 3-10 dm long, becoming much-branched; petioles 3-15 mm long; leaves opposite, the blades 1-6 cm long, 6-35 mm wide, ovate to somewhat rhombic or elliptic to lanceolate, attenuate, cuneate to acute or obtuse at the base; flowers borne in lax, spicate clusters, 2-12 cm long, on peduncles 1-4 cm long; each cluster 3-flowered, with one fertile and the others sterile, sepals 2.2-3 mm long, oblong-elliptic; seed ovoid, ca 1.5 mm broad, shining, brown, smooth"  (Welsh, 1998; pp. 27-28).

Habitat/ecology:  "Uncommon in disturbed places, including secondary forest" (Whistler, 1988; p. 7).

In Fiji, "at elevations from near sea level to about 1,200 m, as a naturalized weed on seashores and along roadsides and forest trails" (Smith, 1981; pp. 289-290).  In Tahiti, "cool valleys to 800 m" (Welsh, 1998; pp. 27-28). In Papua New Guinea, "a weed of roadsides, plantations and rough grazing land, in partial shade" (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 57); "in primary and secondary forests, also as a weed in moist shady places, at 0-1200 (-2000) m altitude"  (Womersley, 1978; p. 32). In Tonga, "a plantation and waste area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 108).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Africa to China and Australia, probably introduced into tropical America" (Smith, 1981; pp. 289-290). Africa and Asia; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 592,  Garber 669, Harris 215, Yuncker 9170
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 37)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9170 (BISH), Garber 669 (BISH), W. Harris 215 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 10238)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 96)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 12)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 16)
Common
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 24267)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1996) (voucher ID: PTBG 24886)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 70)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2454 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 66-67)
Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3959 (NY), M.J. Balick 3993 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4123 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 81 (NY, PTBG), E. Eperiam 29 (NY), F.R. Fosberg 26405 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2454 (BISH), R. Hobdy 1636 (BISH), M. Hung 5 (NY, PTBG), D.H. Lorence 9567 (COM, NY, PTBG, US), P. Raynor 29 (NY), C. Trauernicht 93 (NY, PTBG), M. Takamatsu 696 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 34958)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 43410)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 43426)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2005) (voucher ID: PTBG 46093)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 48696)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2007) (voucher ID: PTBG 49907)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 70)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 289-290)
Voucher cited: Milne 114
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 289-290)
Voucher cited: MacGillivray
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 289-290)
Voucher cited: DA 8849
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (pp. 289-290)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 347, DA 2105, DA 7108, DA 13063, DA 11643, DA 7754, DA 9418, Milne 415
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 7347 (PAP), J. Florence 7425 (PAP), J. Florence, D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 9519 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 23564)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence, D.H. Lorence, S.P. Perlman & W.L. Wagner 9599 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4309 (PAP), J. Florence 6681 (PAP), J. Florence 6731 (PAP), J. Florence 7438 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 7272 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42534)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42248)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata (L.) Bl.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Voucher cited: Grant 3440
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Bora Bora Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 12130
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11558 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10276 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4772 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Voucher cited: Moore 157
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 3613 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 27-28)
Vouchers cited: Florence et al. 9857, Grant 3550, Drake l.c.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Vesco s.n. (PAP), J. Lépine 67 (PAP), M. Chaine 121 (PAP), J. Florence 3972 (PAP), J. Florence 8758 (PAP), J. Florence , P. Birnbaum & M. Chaine 9789 (PAP), J. Florence , P. Birnbaum & M. Chaine 9857 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37226)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9169 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J. (2004) (pp. 68-71)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 57)
From low altitudes to 1000 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Womersley, John S., ed. (1978) (p. 32)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 110)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 129)
At low and medium altitudes, in waste places, thickets, etc.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3919)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 13054)
Taxon name on voucher: Cyathula prostrata
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 7)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 108)
"Throughout the group".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 108)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15562
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 108)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 335
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Tafahi Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 108)
Voucher cited: Hürlimann 451
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 2)
Vouchers cited: Barclay s.n., Crosby 238
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 108)
Cited: Barclay, Crosby.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 51)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, riverbanks, roadsides. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 78-79)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 30)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Hillsides, riverbanks, roadsides.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2689


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This page was created on 11 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.