Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cuscuta campestris
Yunck., Convolvulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 22 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: yuan ye tu si zi

English: angel's hair, common dodder, dodder, field dodder, five angled dodder, golden dodder, praire dodder, strangle vine, western field dodder, yellow dodder

Fijian: navereverelangi, ndithangi, wa lawala, wa mbosuthu, wa ndanga, wa tikaivu, wa vereverelangi

French: cuscute de champs, fil de soie

Maori (Cook Islands): tia‘ea

Rotuman: luorovaka

Spanish: fideo

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Stems threadlike, with occasional concave scales at ramifications, haustoria irregularly distributed; inflorescences somewhat thickened, forked, cymules irregularly helicoid or subscorpioid, with obovate hyaline bracts up to 2 x 1 mm, obtuse, flattish; flowers pedicellate, about 3 mm wide, closely subtended by a tiny obtuse scale; calyx broadly cup shaped, lobed to 1/3-1/2 its length, lobes semicircular, slightly overlapping at sinuses; corolla tube broad, included, lobes about equaling tube, exserted, ovate, obtuseish but mucronulate, tending to be reflexed, about 1 mm long; scales with several blunt linear processes on each side of filament; stamens exserted, filaments inserted in sinuses, anthers broadly elliptic, curved, about 0.6 mm long, filaments about as long; ovary with apex capitate; fruit depressed globose, about 2.5 mm across, with a large hole in top between persistent styles; walls hyaline translucent; seeds about 1 mm across, subglobose with concavities from crowding, dark dull brown with black spot (hilum?), surface dull, cellular-reticulate" (Fosberg and Sachet, 1977; pp. 5-6).

Habitat/ecology:  Parasitic on a wide range of host plants. Climbs over vegetation. In New Caledonia, "paraît de façon sporadique à Dumbéa ex aux environs de Nouméa; rarement vu ailleurs" (MacKee, 1994; p. 40).

Propagation:  A prolific seed producer. Seeds spread by animals, by water, or as a contaminant of agricultural seeds. Seeds may remain dormant for long periods. Can also spread by stem fragments. A common contaminant of seed.

In Fiji, "often locally abundant from near sea level to an elevation up to 1,050 m, naturalized in thickets, cultivated areas, plantations, and clearings and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; p. 70).  In Hawai'i, "apparently sparingly naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 582).

Native range:  North America; widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Whistler 5376
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 85)
Voucher: Flynn 7025 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 358)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 79)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence 8055 (MO, NY, PRBG, US)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 30130)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta cf. Campestris Yuncker
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 222)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Falanruw, Marjorie (1999) (p. Field notes.)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2008) (p. 11)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Smith 9
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 140616)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 612918)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Gillespie 4664.8
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1928) (voucher ID: BISH 140619)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: DA 10464, DA 10783
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1957) (voucher ID: BISH 33897)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 70)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 390, Smith 4003, Gibbs 814, Degener 14934, DA 11345, Vaughan 3201, O.&I. Degener 32120a, DA 8997, DA 11179, Gillespie 3419, Setchell & Parks 15023, Smith 7228, Yeoward 84, Yuncker 18004
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33896)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 34389)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 140617)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 140618)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 140620)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 140621)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 140622)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 140623)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 140624)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 140625)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 140626)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 140627)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: St. John 18059
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Yasawas Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1937) (voucher ID: BISH 140628)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 96)
Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.; Vouchers cited: Florence 2794, Setchell & Parks 12, Grant 3656
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1912) (voucher ID: BISH 140614)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 491619)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 209)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3331 (US)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649470)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 651731)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 651732)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 652426)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000164)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1980) (voucher ID: PTBG 23977)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta cf. campestris
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 582)
Voucher cited: Welch 16704 (BISH)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2011) (p. 7)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & Perlman H120821 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 10)
West Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H50115 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2004) (p. 22)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 020814-1 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 582)
Sparingly naturalized.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll introduced
invasive
Wester, Lyndon (1985) (p. 29)
Listed as native by Wester.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Kiritimati (Christmas) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 51387)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta pentagona Engelm.
Kiribati
Line Islands
Teraina (Washington) Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (pp. 89-90)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 40)
Vouchers cited: Le Rat 220, Franc 737, Compton 170 (BM), Däniker 84 (Z), MacKee 19109, MacKee 22774, MacKee 24994, MacKee 28352, MacKee 37254, MacKee 46225
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 80)
Voucher cited: CHR 169815
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 17)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 6708 (PTBG, US, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 14)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (year unknown) (voucher ID: PTBG 30179)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 254)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 17)
Voucher cited: Brown s.n.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1984) (voucher ID: BISH 593160)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3926)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Wake Islands
Wake Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1998) (voucher ID: BISH 690629)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuscuta campestris Yunck.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 254)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 254)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Fujian (Fuzhou Shi), Xinjiang.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 254)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 254)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 254)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 554)
"A parasite of carrot and sugar beet crops, also of wild hosts".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Becoming quite common on Guam.

On U.S. Federal noxious weed list.

Control:  Control is difficult because control of the dodder usually results in the destruction of the host plant.

Physical: Mow and burn the cut material where it lies or spray with oil or other weed killer and burn (Kleinschmidt and Johnson, 1977; p. 49).

Biological: "Several insects restrict dodder growth, the most promising being a small weevil, Smicronyx sp., which feeds on growing points and forms galls on the young dodder shoots.  C. campestris is attacked by the fungal pathogens, Alternaria cuscutacidae, in the southern Soviet Union and Colletotrichum destructivum in Oregon in the United States and a form of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in China"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 400-403).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.