Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cuphea carthagenensis
(Jacq.) J.F.Macbr., Lythraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cuphea balsamona Cham. & Schltdl.; Lythrum carthagenense Jacq.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Colombian cuphea, Colombian waxweed, Columbian cuphea, tarweed

Fijian: kerisi, lasahia

Spanish: escobilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual or perhaps short-lived perennial herbs, sometimes slightly woody at base; stems 1.5-5 dm long, often many-branched, glandular hispid and white puberulent.  Leaves obovate to elliptic or oblong-elliptic, (10-) 20-60 mm long, (8-) 12-26 mm wide, apex obtuse, base cuneate, petioles 0-2 mm long.  Flowers few in terminal and also axillary cymes, pedicels ca. 1 mm long; floral tube green, sometimes becoming reddish, flask-shaped, 4-7 mm long, sparsely hispidulous on nerves, some of the hairs glandular; calyx teeth ovate; petals pale pink or bluish, drying violet, subequal, ca. 1.5 mm long; stamens included and inserted in 2 unequal whorls near the constriction of the floral tube.  Capsules ovoid, 1-celled, 3.5-5 mm long.  Seeds 4, suborbicular, ca. 2 mm in diameter"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 866).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in mesic to wet, disturbed sites, 50-935 m." (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 866).  In Fiji, "found from near sea level to an elevation of 1,125 m as a sometimes abundant weed in gardens, plantations, and open fields, along roadsides and forest trails, and in open places on ridges and crests" (Smith, 1985; p. 283).  "Common to abundant in pastures and wet, sunny places, mostly at higher elevations, but uncommon in Tonga" (Whistler, 1988; p. 28). "It is occasional to common in wet, disturbed places in Samoa, particularly in roadside ditches and wet pastures away from the coast" (Whistler, 1983; p. 54). In New Caledonia, "mauvaise herbe arrivée paraît-il assez récemment et maintenant très répandue, surtout en lieux frais et humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 95).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical America (Smith, 1985; p. 283).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 180)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 19)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C. (1980) (p. 207)
Voucher cited: Hallier 58 (HBG)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 283-284)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 921
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 283-284)
Voucher cited: DA 8927
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 283-284)
Voucher cited: Bierhorst F173
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 283-284)
Vouchers cited: Tothill 202, Smith 4816, Greenwood 786, Smith 5391, McKee 2748, DA 10553, Smith 8815, DA 9523, DA 10037, DA 11506, DA 9806, Smith 7005, DA 10578, DA 12236
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 170)
Voucher cited: BRY 26033a
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2876 (PAP), J. Florence 3673 (PAP), W.A. Whistler & M. Guérin 13 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1981) (voucher ID: PTBG 37288)
Taxon name on voucher: Cuphea carthagenensis (Jacq.) Macbr.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 866)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 866)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, Randal T. (2002) (p. 9)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H109923 (BISH), Oppenheimer H109925 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 866)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 866)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 866)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 95)
Vouchers cited: MacKee 7851, MacKee 13397, MacKee 14325, MacKee 15220, MacKee 16085, Schmid 3085 (NOU), MacKee 22006, MacKee 27980, MacKee 29839, MacKee 35245, Suprin 405 (NOU), Morat 6309
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 28)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 28)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 186)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chiapas, Tabasco, Veracruz
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 30)
Naturalised
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Texas
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 3 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 14 OCT 2006.