Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cryptostegia grandiflora
Roxb. ex R.Br., Apocynaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Pacific:  High risk, score: 28 (Go to the risk assessment)
Australia:  Reject, score: 16 (Go to the risk assessment)
Risk assessment from the Government of Queensland, Australia (PDF format).

Common name(s): [more details]

English: India rubber vine, Palay rubbervine, panay rubber plant, rubber vine

French: liane de gatope

Spanish: caucho de la India

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Vine to subshrubStems with numerous, small lenticels.  Lamina elliptic to orbicular, up to 10 cm long and 6.3 wide, glabrous; 11-13 secondary veins per side of midrib; tip acute; base cuneate; petiole 7-20.8 mm long, 0.9-3 mm diameter.  Cyme of 1 or 2 fascicles.  Flowers 5-6 cm long, 5-8.8 cm diameter; pedicels 4.2-8.5 mm long, 3-6.2 mm diameter, glabrous.  Calyx lobes lanceolate-ovate, 11.9-18.7 mm long, 5.6-9.8 mm wide.  Corolla pale pink to white; tube 1.9-4.5 cm long, 11.2-17 mm diameter; lobes 21-43 mm long, 13-22.5 mm wide.  Corolline corona of 5 bilobed filaments in throat of tube; each lobe ca 10 mm long overall, bilobed portion ca 8 mm long.  Staminal column 2-3 mm long, 3-4 mm diameter; anthers 4-4.5 mm long, 3-3.5 mm wide.  Translators obtuse, ca 3 mm long and 1.5 mm wide.  Style-head conical, ca 3.5 mm long and 2.5 mm diameter.  Ovaries ca 4 mm long and 2 mm wide.  Follicles fusiform-ovoid, 10-15.4 cm long, 2.1-4 cm diameter; seeds 5.2-9.7 mm long, 1.6-2.8 mm wide; coma white, 18.9-38 mm long." (Marohasy and Forster, 1991; pp. 574-575).

"Woody ornamental lactiferous climber with opposite simple oblong shortly acuminate short-petiolate leaves 4-10 cm long, 3-5 cm wide; cymes of about 6-12 large reddish-purple flowers (sometimes lighter pink-violet); calyx-lobes about 1.2 cm long; corolla about 5 cm long (in bud); follicles 7.5-8.5 cm long.  The flowers resemble those of the purple Allamanda (Allamanda violacea)" (Stone, 1970; p. 487).

"Can be distinguished from C. madagascariensis by its stems with smaller, more numerous lenticels; leaf blades with 11-13 pairs of secondary veins; larger corollas (2-2.5 inches long); 2-lobed corona filaments; and larger fruit (4-6.25 inches long)"  (Staples & Herbst, 2005; p. 142).

Habitat/ecology:  Dry forest, roadsides, moist forest, rainforest openings at low elevations. A aggressive woody climbing shrub which is capable of growing over trees up to 15 m high.  In the open, forms impenetrable thickets. "C. grandiflora occurs in the dry south-west of Madagascar where the annual rainfall is less than 600 mm.  Plants occur naturally in the few vestigial pockets of riverine and seasonally flooded forests; however, most of these natural forest types have been cleared for cultivation or destroyed by fire.  Plants are common in disturbed situations where there is temporary or permanent water, such as along gullies, rivers, creeks, waterholes and in salmarsh areas." (Marohasy and Forster, 1991; pp. 574-575).

In Australia, "found in Queensland in the dry tropical areas often fringing streams and river systems including adjacent hills and pastures.  It smothers vegetation replacing native species, particularly in areas degraded by stock.  Hinders pastoralism and reported to be toxic to livestock."  (Smith, 2002; p. 47). In New Caledonia, "cultivé comme plante ornamentale à Nouméa; infeste sur des étendues importantes des pâturages dans la partie Nord de la côte Ouest, surtout dans la région de Voh" (MacKee, 1994; p. 20); "envahissant dans les pâturages" (Barrau 11, 1953).

Propagation:  Wind- and water-dispersed seeds (Smith, 2002; p. 47).

Native range:  Madagascar (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 219-220)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 92)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 14)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 10)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2407 (PAP)
Ornemental peu abondaùent cultivé.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tetiaroa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M.-H./Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 65)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10106 (PAP)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 633771)
Taxon name on voucher: Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Takapoto Atoll introduced
cultivated
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 33)
One vine in village. Voucher cited: Sachet 2042 (US)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 487)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 219-220)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1963) (voucher ID: BISH 73093)
Taxon name on voucher: Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1994) (voucher ID: BISH 641231)
Taxon name on voucher: Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (pp. 8-9)
Voucher cited: OED 2009061601 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1930) (voucher ID: BISH 73095)
Taxon name on voucher: Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (pp. 219-220)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 99)
Not seen on this survey and may no longer be present.
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 452831)
Taxon name on voucher: Cryptostegia grandiflora Roxb. ex R.Br.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 10)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 100)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 379)
Infeste d'importantes étendues de pâturages dans le Nord de la côte Ouest, surtout dans la région de Voh.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: Baumann 7445, Barrau 11, MacKee 8035, Benoit in MacKee 21760, MacKee 21788
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 453)
Cultivated as an ornamental.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 340)
A comparatively recent introduction, occasionally planted for ornamental purposes but showing little tendency to persist.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island introduced
cultivated
Orapa, Warea (2005)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 47)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Yucutan
Naturalized
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Cajamarca
Naturalized
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 30)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Naturalisée, potentiellement envahissant
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 46)
Voucher cited: Robertson 2732
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  A "weed of national significance" in Australia. A major environmental weed of central and northern Queensland, Australia. A declared noxious weed there as well as in the Northern Territory and Western Australia (Smith, 2002; p. 47).

Invasive in the Virgin Islands (Fred Kraus, communication to Aliens listserver).

See also Cryptostegia madagascariensis.

Control: 

Physical: Hand treatment is practical only on a small scale.

Chemical: "Overall spraying with a hand wand gives effective control of scattered young plants up to 1.5 meters high, but results are affected by time of application and the formulations used.  Apply ester 2,4-D, dicamba as the dimethylamine salt or picloram + 2,4-D as the tri-isopropanolamine salts in autumn, using water as the carrier and thoroughly wetting both the foliage and the stems.  In general, dicamba and picloram give better results but are more expensive and more environmentally damaging than 2,4-D.  Of the application methods available for the treatment of large mature plants, a modified basal bark application gives better results than application to the upper stems which, in turn, is more effective than overall foliage sprays.  In basal bark treatments, sever the stems about 50 cm above the ground and apply ester 2,4-D, picloram, triclopyr or mixtures of these herbicides, or with hexazinone or metsulfuron alone with a spotgun, thoroughly wetting the butts all around.  Cut stump treatments also give good results.  In this technique, sever the stems at ground level and swab the cut surfaces immediately with one or other of the herbicides suggested for basal bark treatments.  Stem injection treatments with picloram or hexazinone also give good results"  (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; pp. 176-179).

Rubber vine may require more than one treatment and may take up to two years to die.

Biological: "Two biological control agents have become widespread in Queensland since their release in the early 1990s. The rubber vine rust Maravalia cryptostegiae forms on the underside of leaves and causes them to turn yellow and drop. The rust thrives during the wet season but is less active over the dry season. Frequent showers early in the season should result in heavy infestations of rust. The other agent is the moth Euclasta whalleyi, whose caterpillars feed on rubber vine leaves between March and October. The moth has a black spot on each wing and characteristically rests with its wings folded at 45 to a vertical surface. The caterpillars tend to feed on the underside of new leaves, often leaving fine silken threads and black bead-like droppings. Both agents, especially the rust, cause damage (eg reduced flowering, seed pod production and leaf cover) and occasionally the death of established plants. However, their effectiveness varies with climatic conditions"  (Australian Weed Management Guide).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAY 2017.