Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Crotalaria micans
Link, Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Crotalaria anagyroides Kunth; Crotalaria brachystachys Benth.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: san jian ye zhu shi dou

Niuean: pile, pinē kotalelia

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Perennial herbs, subshrubs, or small shrubs; stems ascending or erect, up to 35 dm long, weakly striate, appressed or spreading short-pubescent.  Leaves trifoliolate, leaflets elliptic obovate, or oblanceolate, 2.5-10.2 cm long, 0.7-3.5 cm wide, veins 5-20 on each side of midvein, upper surface glabrous or sparsely pubescent, lower surface appressed short-pubescent to densely spreading pubescent, apex rounded to acute, occasionally acuminate or mucronulate, base cuneate or broadly cuneate, petioles 4-92 mm long, stipules absent or minute and setaceous.  Flowers 16-19 mm long, 10-30 in terminal, crowded inflorescences, these terminated by a tuft of curled bracts, rachis up to 26 cm long (incl. peduncle), bracts linear-triangular, 8-13 mm long, ascending, caducous, bracteoles at apex of pedicel, linear-triangular; calyx appressed short-pubescent to spreading pubescent, occasionally sericeous, the tube 4-5 mm long, the lobes 4.9-5.9 mm long, lateral lobes connate at apex; petals yellow with lines near base, standard 13-14 mm long, 18-21 mm wide, wings oblong, 12.5-16 mm long, 7.8-9 mm wide, keel petals with a moderately long, nontwisted beak, densely pubescent externally below beak, margins ciliate; elongated anthers 3-3.3 mm long, short ones 1-1.1 mm long.  Pods brown at maturity, 2-3.5 cm long, stipitate, stipe 3-6 mm long, appressed short-pubescent.  Seeds ca 20 per pod, tan to brown, up to 3.5 mm long, smooth"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 661).

Habitat/ecology:  Introduced in the past as an agriculture cover crop or as an ornamental.  Weedy, mostly along roadsides and other disturbed areas, sometimes in dense stands.  In Hawai‘i, "growing in disturbed sites, 50-530 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 661).  On Niue, locally abundant in open or scrub-covered country" (Sykes, 1970; p. 148).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Neotropics; cultivated in paleotropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 420152)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 618517)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664483)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 85)
Voucher: Flynn 7015 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 348)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria micans
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 90)
Voucher cited: M. Tamakatsu 777 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 153962)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 106)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 271)
Vouchers cited: DA 8491, DA 9566, DA 2410, DA 12131
Perhaps naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1955) (voucher ID: BISH 14427)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 661)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 661)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 661)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 148)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150541, CHR 150544
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 7)
As Crotalaria anagyroides HBK. Voucher: Flynn 6682 (PTBG, US, NIUE)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A./Atherton, J. (1997) (p. 34)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 61)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9674 (BISH). "The seeds have been scattered throughout the island in the hope that the growth of the plant will improve the poor soil".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 14)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 30183)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides H. B. K.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 85)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
Verdcourt, B. (1979)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 229)
Introduced for suppressing weeds in plantations and for soil improvement; used as an ornamental plant.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28867)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100419)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 439251)
Taxon name on voucher: Crotalaria anagyroides HBK.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Grasslands, slopes, along trails; below 100-2400 m".
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Grasslands, slopes, along trails; below 100-2400 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)

Comments:  Wagner et al. (1999; p. 661) and GRIN list C. anagyroides and C. micans as synonyms but Tim Flynn reports that the specimens in the Bishop Museum do not match.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.