Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Crotalaria juncea
L., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: shu ma

English: Indian hemp, Madras hemp, sann hemp, sunhelp, sunn crotalaria, sunn hemp

Filipino: karay-kagay, putokputukan

French: chanvre du Bengale, crotolaire jonciforme

Hindi: san

Spanish: cáñamo san

Habit:  herb

Description:  "An annual herb up to 2.5 m tall; stems erect, ribbed, subappressed pubescent; leaves simple, oblong to oblanceolate, apex acute to obtuse, stipules filiform, ca. 2 mm long; flowers 15-20 mm long, in terminal inflorescences 10-25 cm long, bracts narrowly lanceolate, 3-5 mm long, calyx 15-20 mm long, weakly bilabiate, the lobes 3-4 times as long as the tube, velutinous; petals 15-25 mm long, bright yellow, with dark red or brown streaks, the standard to 25 mm long, the keel to 20 mm long, with a twisted beak, the wings shorter than the keel; pods cylindrical 2.5-3.5 (-5.5) cm long, velutinous, sessile; seeds 6-15 per pod, cordiform, 4-6 mm long, light brown to black"  (Wagner et al., 1997; pp. 56-57).

Habitat/ecology:  "Although generally considered a tropical or subtropical crop, sunn hemp is drought resistant and is widely adaptable to different soil types. Its tolerance to salt and frost is low. For fibre production, light, loamy well-drained soils are preferred; on low-lying or clay soils it achieves vigorous growth, but the bast fibre is coarser and yields are lower. PH of 5-8.4 is a suitable range. Mean annual temperature: 9-30 deg. C. Mean annual rainfall: 170-1 500 mm. Altitude: 0-300 m"  (Agroforestree database).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Considered native to India, it is widely cultivated as a cover crop and for fiber  (Wagner et al., 1997; p. 57). Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, exact native range in south Asia obscure; cultivated throughtout the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2008) (p. 13)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 269)
Voucher cited: DA (FDA 13401)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Wagner et al. 6392 (US)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Imada 2001-71 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 11)
East Maui. Voucher cited: R. Hobdy 3593 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Sasakawa s.n. (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll extirpated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 96)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 148)
Voucher cited: CHR 150545
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 29)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Sparse forests, along trails; below 100-2000 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 141)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 184)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 29)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Sparse forests, along trails; below 100-2000 m".
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 12 FEB 2010 and was last updated on 17 MAR 2013.