Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Crassula multicava
Lemaire, Crassulaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 12 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Cape Province pygmyweed, fairy crassula

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Herb 15-30 cm tall, stems sprawling with ends erect, unbranched or sparsely branched, with flaking waxy epidermis; leaves short-petiolate, upper pair subsessile, petioles winged, 0.5-1.5 cm long, lamina broadly elliptic to broadly ovate or subcircular, 1.8-5 x 1.5-3.8 cm, base obtuse to rounded or truncate, usually decurrent along petiole, apex obtuse to rounded, when fresh dull red-green above, dull whitish below, drying thick-chartaceous, both surfaces pitted with pellucid-punctate glands; flowers in paniculate cymes 14-16 x 4-6 cm, peduncles 7-10 cm long, branches reddish tinged; flowers on slender, minutely bracteolate pedicels 4-7 mm long; calyx lobes narrowly triangular, 0.8-1.5 x 0.8-1 mm, green; petals pale pink or white with pinkish tinge, narrowly ovate-oblong, 4-5 x 1-2 mm, stamens 3.5-4 mm long, styles 1.5 mm long, carpels 2 mm long; seeds brown, ellipsoid, 0.3-0.4 mm long; fruiting inflorescences proliferous, producing plantlets in axils of bracteoles"  (Lorence, Flynn & Wagner, 1995; p. 33).

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i (Kaua‘i), "it has spread from cultivated plants and has become naturalized locally in the Kokee region along a road through eucalyptus plantings in mesic forest"  (Lorence, Flynn & Wagner, 1995; p. 33).  In New Zealand, "rock and concrete walls, banks, raw lava, crevices, volcanic cliff faces, usually in open places but sometimes in partial shade of scrub and tall herbs"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 575).

Propagation:  Vegetatively via plantlets produced by the fruiting inflorescences, possibly also by seed  (Lorence, Flynn & Wagner, 1995; p. 33).

Native range:  South Africa (Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal) (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 479, 552)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 33)
Vouchers cited: T. Flynn & D. Lorence 5535 (PTBG), K. R. Wood 3097 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2012) (pp. 13-14)
Voucher cited: J. Beachy U.S. Army 134 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1940) (voucher ID: BISH 449506)
Taxon name on voucher: Crassula multicava Lemaire
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 553609)
Taxon name on voucher: Crassula multicava Lemaire
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: MacKee 36019
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalized around Sydney Harbour on disturbed bushland margins.
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 575)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 19 OCT 2011 and was last updated on 1 NOV 2011.