Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cosmos caudatus
H.B.K., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: cosmos

Habit:  herb

Description: 

Genus: "Annual or perennial herbs with opposite leaves; flowering heads heterogamous, radiate, mediuim-sized, solitary or in loose corymbiform clusters, long-pedunculate, the phyllaries in 2 series, connate at base, the outer ones herbaceous, the inner ones membranous, longitudinally brown-orange- or purple-striate, the receptacle with flat or somewhat concave, narrowly oblong, acute paleae; ray flowers in 1 series, usually 5 or 8, neuter, the limb of the corolla obovate, entire or dentate at apex; disk flowers numerous, perfect, fertile, the corolla tubular, 5-lobed, the anther bases entire, subsagittate, or auriculate, the style branches flattened distally and outwardly densely tufted, with the tip acute or sagittate or more commonly ending in an apiculate awnlike appendage; achenes linear-fusiform, more or less quadrangular, compressed, commonly beaked, the pappus generally of 2-4 stiff, retrorsely barbed awns from the summit of the achinial beak" (Smith, 1991; p. 283).

Species:  "Coarse herb 0.3-2 m high."  (Smith, 1991)."Pales acute or obtuse; outer involucral bracts linear-lanceolate, acute, inner ones oblong or oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acute.  Petiole 1-7 cm; leaflets or leaf-segments linear or lanceolate, with finely ciliate margins, glabrous, 2-8 mm wide.  Achenes, especially the central ones, long-beaked; beak with obliquely patent bristles, with 2-3 apical awns.  Ligule of marginal flowers reddish or violet, 1-1 1/2 cm by c. 1/2 cm; peduncles 5-22 cm; achenes glabrous or thinly shortly hairy, 1-3 cm long.  Stem glabrous or thinly hairy; leaves 3-4-pinnate or 3-4-pinnatipartite, 4-20 cm (petiole disregarded) by 3-15 cm; leaflets or segments 2-8 mm wide."  (Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1965; pp. 413-414).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "occurring from sea level to about 200 m, sometimes cultivated but frequently naturalized as a weed in waste places and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1991; p. 283).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  West Indies and Central America, widely cultivated and sometimes naturalized (Smith, 1991; p. 283). Mexico, Central America, Venezuela, Colombia; cultivated and naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 284)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 907
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 284)
Voucher cited: DA 12958, DA 10499
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (p. 284)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 169, DA 10283, DA 10184, DA 11321, DA 11347, DA 9539, DA 12110
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 242)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 128)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 103)
Cosmos sp.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 100)
Cosmos sp.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 96)
Cosmos sp.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 565)
Cultivated and half-wild.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 614)
A common weed in open waste places, fallow lands, etc., at low and medium altitudes.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 101)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 3 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2013.