Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Coronopus didymus
(L.) Sm., Brassicaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Lepidium didymum L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: xiu qi

English: bittercress, carrot weed, hog's cress, land cress, lesser swine cress, swine cress, swine wartcress, swine watercress, twin cress, wart cress

French: coronope didyme, coronope pinnatifide, senebière didyme

Japanese: karakusa-nazuna

Spanish: cervellina, huamicara, mastuerzo, mastuerzo silvestre, pichicara

Tongan: lesi vao

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Foetid annual or biennial with short-loved rosette and procumbent to ascending glabrous or sparsely hairy stems to 40 cm long.  Leaves 1-2-pinnatifid, narrow-oblong to ovate, glabrous except for sparse spreading hairs on petioles of some basal leaves; rosette leaves petiolate, 6-10 x 1.5-2 cm; stem leaves smaller, usually pinnatifid, rarely 2-pinnatifid, 1-4 x 0.5-1.5 cm.  Racemes (1)-3-5 cm; rachis with sparse spreading hairs; pedicels spreading, 2.5-4 mm long.  Sepals c. 0.5 mm long.  Petals white, less than sepals or 0.  Stamens usually 2, rarely 4.  Silicle broader than long, emarginate, c. 1.5 x 2-2.5 mm; valves finely warty or ridged, separating at maturity; stigma minute, almost sessile in apical notch of silicle.  Seed comma-shaped, light brown, c. 1 mm long."  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 419)

"Sparsely pubescent, aromatic annual or biennial herbs; outer stems prostrate, 1-4 dm long.  Basal leaves oblong in outline, 3-10 cm long, deeply pinnatifid, the lobes dentate, stem leaves similar but shorter.  Petals ca. 1 mm long; stamens 2.  Silicles didymous, 2-2.5 mm wide, finely wrinkled"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 403).

Habitat/ecology:  "Occasional in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 16).  "[It] may be seen on new, sown and overgrazed pasture, around gateways and watering places, in animal yards, and in many types of cultivated crops" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 245).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed sites, especially common in lawns, 0-2,100 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 403).  In Fiji, "an infrequent weed in waste places at an elevation of 750-800 m" (Smith, 1981; p. 708).  In Niue, mostly seen in plantations, where it is often common" (Sykes, 1970; p. 76).  In Tonga, "a plantation and waste-area weed" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 122).  In New Zealand, "waste land, roadsides, cultivated land, coastal shingly land"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 419). In New Caledonia, "serait peut-être la "moutarde sauvage" citée comme mauvaise herbe à Nouvéa par Pancher (1858b). Aujourd'hui bien répandu en cultures et terrains vagues" (MacKee, 1994; p. 44).

Propagation:  "It reproduced by seeds that are moved by wind, water, in mud on the feet of birds, animals, and by various activities of man" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 245).

Native range:  South America; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"A common weed of disturbed soil and open wasteland". Vouchers cited: L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1232 (NSW); J. Pickard 2744 (NSW); 1898, J.H. Maiden (NSW); J.D. McComish 197 (NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A common weed of disturbed soil and open wasteland". Vouchers cited: P. Ralston 56 (A, K), R.M. Laing (CHR)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 81)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 479, 525, 552)
Voucher cited: Danton F(1100)890. "Se instaló en las calles del pueblo de San Juan Bautista, probablemente introducida con el forraje y animales importados del continente.  Soporta muy bien el pisoteo".
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
Smith, Albert C. (1981) (p. 708)
Voucher cited: Greenwood 880
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 11)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Laysan Island introduced
invasive
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2003) (p. 9)
Voucher cited: A. Martin 2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 331 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Pearl and Hermes Reef introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (pp. 16, 19)
North Island: Scattered in the interior of the island. Southeast Island: Common throughout the island.
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: MacKee 27276
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Bien répandu en cultures et terrains vagues.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 44)
Vouchers cited: Pancher s.n., Balansa 562, Franc 505, Däniker 670, MacKee 5191, MacKee 35758
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 415)
"Waste land, roadsides, cultivated land, coastal shingly land".
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 102)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 76)
Voucher cited: CHR 170268
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 16)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 57)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9795 (BISH), Yuncker 10246 (BISH)
"A weed along roadsides and on rocky cliffs".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10798 (PAP)
Adventice
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 16)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
"Throughout Tonga".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15586
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 122)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 16233, Hülimann 102
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Eastern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 403-404)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Spit Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-7)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, waste areas, fields; near sea level to 1000 m. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 111)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Toni J./Wolf, Matthias (1988) (p. 163)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 183)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Sinaloa
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 419)
"Waste land, roadsides, cultivated land, coastal shingly land".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Roadsides, waste areas, fields; near sea level to 1000 m.
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)


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This page was created on 3 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2013.