Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cordia curassavica
(N. Jacquin) J. Roemer & J. A. Schultes, Boraginaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Cordia macrostachya (Jacquin) Roemer & Schultes

Common name(s): [more details]

English: black sage, herbe condé, wild sage

French: mahot noir

Spanish: orégano-cimarrón

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "…a much-branched odorous shrub 1-3 m tall. Branching occurs mainly at the base of the plant. The ovate leaves are 5-10 cm long with pointed tips, and are greyish green and rough on the upper surface but paler and finely and softly hairy below. The white flowers are about 5 mm across and develop sequentially along erect spikes at the tips of the stems, and are followed by red fleshy fruits about 5 mm across with a single stony seed" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 31).

Habitat/ecology:  Dense thickets can prevent regeneration or crowd out other vegetation (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 31).

Propagation:  Bird-dispersed seeds. "Seedlings germinate in well-lit disturbed areas and grow quickly" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 31).

Native range:  Mexico, Central America, West Indies, South America; naturalized elsewhere (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Kalimantan
Naturalized
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Pallawatta, Nirmalie/Reaser, Jamie K./Gutierrez, Alixis T./eds. (2003) (p. 49)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chiapas, Veracruz
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 31, 111)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control: 

Chemical: "Pending the results of field trials plants should be cut back close to ground level and allowed to regrow to between 50 and 80 cm tall. The regrowth should then be sprayed with 2% Roundup plus Pulse" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 31).

Biological: A seed-attacking eurytomid wasp (Eurytoma attiva Burks) and a defoliating chrysomelid beetle (Metrogaleruca obscura Degeer) are effective for control (Julien, 1992; pp. 61-62; Swarbrick, 1997; p. 31).  Also see "Biological control of Cordia curassavica (Jacq.) R. & S. in Malysia by Schematiza cordiae Barb. (Coleop: Galerucidae)" by S. H. Ung, A. Yunus and W. H. Chin.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 16 MAR 2013.