Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Conocarpus erectus
L., Combretaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk (based on second screen), score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

English: button mangrove, buttonwood, sea mulberry

French: palétuvier

Spanish: boton, botoncillo, jelí, mangle boton, mangle negro, mangle prieto

Habit:  shrub/tree

Description:  "Shrubs or trees 3-8 m tall.  Leaves chartaceous or somewhat coriaceous and somewhat fleshy, oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, 2.5-9 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, more or less densely silky pubescent, especially on midrib or younger leaves.  Peduncles 2-10 (-15) mm long, bracts minute, tomentose; hypanthium tomentose; calyx lobes greenish white, triangular, ca. 1 mm long; stamens usually 10.  Fruit densely clustered into brownish subglobose heads 1-1.5 cm long, each one 3-3.5 mm long, recurved at apex and often with the persistent calyx."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 547).

Habitat/ecology:  "Button mangrove is intolerant of shade. It is almost always open-grown or in codominant stands. It will tolerate competition by plants of similar size but will not grow under the canopy of taller trees. The species grows above the high tide line, along beaches and just landward of Laguncularia racemosa (L.) Gaertn. and other mangroves. The soils in these situations are usually sandy or marly but sometimes loamy or clayey. Button mangrove is particularly adaptable as an ornamental because it tolerates compacted soil, air pollution, poor drainage, and drought (Gilman and Watson 1993). It also tolerates salt water overwash from storm surges and heavy salt spray. The species grows, although much less commonly, on the lower floodplains of rivers and in upland forests. Herbarium samples have been collected at elevations of 745 m in Costa Rica (Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad 2002)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and sparingly naturalized in coastal areas" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 547).

Propagation:  Water-dispersed seed.

Native range:  "Native to Bermuda, both coasts of southern Florida, the Bahamas, the West Indies, both coasts of Mexico, Central America, South America (through Ecuador and Brazil), and the Galapagos Islands. It is also native to coastal areas of Tropical West Africa (Howard 1989, Little and Wadsworth 1964)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).  Native to the coastal zone in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 78).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Wolf Island
Wolf Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Parker, James L./Parsons, Bobby (2012) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: N. Friday BIED92 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (1997) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: Lorence 7767 (PTBG)
Naturalized locally.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 547)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 547)
Sparingly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 547)
Sparingly naturalized.
Kiribati
Phoenix Islands
Kanton Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Stoddart, D. R. (1994) (p. 17)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg & Stoddart 54885 (US, HAW, K) (green form), Fosberg & Stoddart 54886 (US, HAW, K) (silvery form), Clapp P-71-35 (US) (silvery form), Clapp P-71-34 (US) (green form), Clapp P-71-33 (US) (silvery form), Clapp P-71-29 (US) (green form)
Sparingly established
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island   Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (p. 24)
Not seen in this survey, probably eradicated.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)

Comments:  Also has a densely silky pubescent form (var. sericeus Griseb.), also introduced into Hawai‘i (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 547).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 DEC 2010.