Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Conium maculatum
L., Apiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: du shen

English: carrot-fern, cigue maculee, cigue tachetee, deadly hemlock, fool's parsley, hemlock, poison hemlock, poison parsley, spotted hemlock, spotted parsley

French: cigüe maculée, grande ciguë

Spanish: encaje cimarrón, panalillo, perejil de chucho, perejil de monte, zanahoria silvestre

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Erect annual or biennial, with foetid odour when crushed. Stems hollow, striate, up to 2-(3) m high, usually light green and purple spotted or blotched, sometimes tinged purplish or pink, particularly toward base. Leaves 2-4-pinnate; ultimate segments narrowly or broadly ovate to deltoid, pinnatisect or serrate, 5-40 mm long; petioles light green and purple blotched when mature; stem leaves similar to basal, but shortly petiolate and 1-3-pinnate. Umbels 1-8 cm in diameter; rays 4-16; bracts c. > 4-8, narrow-triangular, acuminate, reflexed; bracteoles 3-6, triangular, confined to outer side of umbellets. Flowers numerous, white, c. 2 mm in diameter. Fruit dark brown, 2.5-3 mm long; ribs slender, light brown, often crenulate"  (Webb et al., 1988; 122).

Description from Flora of China online.

Habitat/ecology:  "Grassland, forests, riparian habitats, freshwater wetlands.  This plant grows best in moist and fertile soils.  The plant can spread quickly in disturbed areas and is highly competitive, preventing the establishment of native grasses and forbs by shading and competing for space"  (Weber, 2003; p. 117).

In New Zealand, "waste places, riverbeds, palustral, forest margins"  (Webb et al., 1988; 122).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Low altitude, interior valleys; coastal mountains, 500-2000 m; coastal areas, 0-500 m.  Somewhat dry areas where the drought may last 3-5 months. Precipitations of 400-800 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun. Level areas or slopes facing north"  (Chileflora).  In New South Wales, Australia, "weed of disturbed sites, often near stockyards, along roadsides and riverbanks, widespread"  (NSW PlantNET).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Northern Africa, Europe, temperate Asia to western China and northern India (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
Belov, Michail (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Xinjiang. "Forest margins, cultivated field margins".
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 187)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 122)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Washington) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Canada (except British Colombia)
Canada
Canada (country) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  "Hand pulling plants may be effective, especially prior to seed set.  Spring mowing kills mature plants effectively; a second mow in late summer kills emerged seedlings and regrowth"

Chemical:  Effective post-emergent herbicides include 2,4-D ester, 2,4-D amine, or glyphosate applied in late spring"  (Weber, 2003; p. 117).


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This page was created on 15 DEC 2010 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2011.