Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Commelina diffusa
Burm.f., Commelinaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 23 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: semprebiban-damalong

Chinese: jie jie cao

English: climbing dayflower, creeping-spiderwort, dayflower, spreading dayflower, wandering Jew, watergrass

Fijian: ai rogorogo, ai rongorongo, ai rorongi, cobulabula, drano, duludauwere, kabocola, kabocola, luna, matembulambula, ndrano, ndulundauwere, rongomatailevu, rorogo, tho nggalonggalo, thombulambula, wa cobocola

Hawaiian: honohono, honohono wai, mākolokolo

Ifugao: bangar-na-lalake

Iloko: kolasi

Japanese: shima-tsuyu-kusa

Kwara‘ae: ongi ongi bala

Mangarevan: pori ruaine

Maori (Cook Islands): mauku ‘oro‘enua, mauku puakatoro, mauku vai

Pohnpeian: rehsopw

Rotuman: saurangi

Samoan: mau‘u toga, mau‘u toga, mau‘u Tonga, mau‘u Tonga, ma‘u‘u toga

Spanish: carutillo, chiriyuyo, cohitre, empanadilla, flor de Santa Lucia, siempreviva, suelda

Tagalog: alikbangon

Tahitian: ma‘apape

Tongan: kaningi, mohuku vai, musie matala pulu

Yapese: fanu

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Creeping herb producing short erect branches; leaves suboblong, up to 8 cm long and 4 cm wide, glabrous; spathe boat-shaped, to nearly 4 cm long; flowers bright blue, or rarely white" (Stone, 1970)."Annual herbs with fibrous root system; stems at first erect, later decumbent, rooting at the nodes, up to 4 dm long, glabrous or nearly so.  Leaves narrowly to broadly lanceolate, 3.5-11 cm long, 0.8-2 cm wide, upper surface glabrous to sparsely scabrous, lower surface glabrous, apex acute to acuminate, base rounded to cuneate, sheath 1-2 cm long, ciliate on the upper edge (hairs translucent or whitish), otherwise glabrous to sparsely puberulent.  Hypogeous flowers not present, spathes 1.5-2 cm long, margins not connate at base, gradually tapering to the acute or obtuse apex, peduncles usually exserted from spathe; petals blue, the upper 2 reniform, the lower one smaller, ca 6 mm long, saccate.  Seeds 5, the surface raised-reticulate"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1379).

Habitat/ecology:  "Terrestrial or occasionally on large limbs of trees with Tillandsia and cryptogamic epiphytes, often in deep shade of trees and large shrubs, on shaded cliffs, and under overhanging ledges; in some areas a common weed around cultivated fields" (Wiggins & Porter, 1971; pp. 793-794). "Forms carpet in pastures and natural areas, displacing grasses in pastures and native plants in humid forests and wetlands"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

In Hawai‘i, "often forming a conspicuous part of ground cover in mesic valleys to disturbed mesic and wet forest and other disturbed sites, 5-1,220 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1379).  In Fiji, "from near sea level to 600 m in wet places in forest and in the open, on sunny stream banks, along trails, in cleared areas and in damp pastures, and along roadsides"  (Smith, 1979; p. 280). In Papua New Guinea "A weed of gardens, cultivated fields, pastures and plantations, particularly on poorly-drained soil in open sunny situations"  (Henty & Pritchard, 1975; p. 25).  Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 230).  In Tonga, "a weed in plantations and waste areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 77).

Propagation:  Seed, rooting from nodes and pieces.

Native range:  Tropical Asia extending eastward into Polynesia, including Hawai‘i. Whether or not it is an early introduction to the Pacific appears to be an open question. Whistler (1988; p. 41) states that it is an aboriginal introduction to Western Polynesia.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Garber 1088
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Garber 1088 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
abo. intro.
Ragone, Diane/Lorence, David H. (2003) (p. 49)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1925) (voucher ID: BISH 109716)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 37098)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9273
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9273 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 109719)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 16)
Vouchers cited: Whistler 3428, Diefenderfer 11
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 430389)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. Field notes)
Chile (offshore islands)
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island
Rapa Nui (Easter) Island (Isla de Pasqua) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2008) (pp. 40, 41)
"L’herbacée rampante Commelina diffusa, introduite comme ornementale à Hanga Roa où elle s’est naturalisée, ainsi qu’à Vinapu selon Zizka (1991), citée comme « peu commun en zone humide » (Lefeuvre et al., 2005 : page 48), est abondamment naturalisée à la CONAF et localisée dans quelques zones de cultures autour du village, pouvant poser un problème potentiel" (Meyer, 2008; p. 40).
Cook Islands
Northern Cook Islands
Manihiki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 74)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1960) (voucher ID: BISH 10203)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 85)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 91)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 97)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 109709)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 665178)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Alcedo, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Cerro Azul, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinta Group
Pinta Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Pinzón Group
Pinzón Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island native
Charles Darwin Research Station (2005)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 28)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 7)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Josekutty, P. C./Wakuk, E. E./Joseph, M. J. (2002) (p. 62)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (pp. 39-40)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 49 (NY, PTBG), A. Dores 58 (NY, BISH, PTBG), E. Eperiam 37 (NY), M. Takamatsu 786 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1936) (voucher ID: BISH 109731)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46341)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Ifalik (Ifaluk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 97)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 97)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Oneata Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 280-281)
Voucher cited: Bryan 487
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Oneata Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 109727)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Oneata Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 699255)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 628337)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1938) (voucher ID: BISH 628341)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Rotuma Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 638022)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 280-281)
Vouchers cited: Seemann 642, DA 8932
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1954) (voucher ID: BISH 33968)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 280-281)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 672, DA 8870, DA 14324
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 280-281)
Vouchers cited: Degener 14997, Greenwood 325A, Smith 4463, DA 8641, DA 8441, DA 11091, DA 9569, DA 11178, Weiner 145, DA 5658, Tothill 906
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 33967)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 109723)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1944) (voucher ID: BISH 109724)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1952) (voucher ID: BISH 109725)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 109726)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 448437)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448442)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1971) (voucher ID: BISH 448543)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 10)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 96 (GH), St. John 14477 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 10)
Voucher cited: St. John 14770 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence, W.L. Wagner, J. Florence, Y. Séchan & S. Bishop 6164 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 6352)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39350)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4102 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39492)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1960) (voucher ID: PTBG 8817)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 311)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11700 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 417337)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643397)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 20)
Vouchers cited: RAynal 17863, Gillette 1 (US), Gillette 5 (US), Fosberg 64953 (US)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 607764)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 614434)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 311)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
University of California (2006)
"Weedy species, but probably an aboriginal introduction. Commonly grows with taro because of its preference for wet habitats".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2136 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1967) (voucher ID: BISH 22370)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607468)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 311)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3684 (PAP), P. Morat 6946 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 311)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 607467)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 311)
Voucher cited: BRY 26037
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 3153 (PAP), J. Florence 3932 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 492818)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 558167)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2984 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 554453)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Niau Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5690 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 553324)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6277 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5572 (PAP), J. Florence 6110 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 551101)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 104)
Voucher cited: G.E.S. 115
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 97)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (year unknown) (voucher ID: BISH 109734)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 436430)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 35)
Rare or extirpated.
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art probably native
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Montrouzier s.n.
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Île Lifou probably native
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: Madame Leenhardt 478, Schmid 2530
Spontané
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre probably native
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 30)
Vouchers cited: Cook s.n. (BM), Védel s.n., MacGillivray 13, Balansa 1369, Grunow s.n. (W), MacKee 2454, MacKee 28584, MacKee 29951
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 224)
Voucher cited: CHR 168856
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 41)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (pp. 31-32)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10082 (BISH)
"Forming mats on moist soil along roads and in waste areas".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 49)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 432241)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 97)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 94)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm. f.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Voucher: Lorence 9774 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 66)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 78)
In gardens, about houses and at roadsides, in cleared places; everywhere common. Prefers dampness.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) invasive
Henty, E. E./Pritchard, G. H. (1975) (p. 25)
Throughout New Guinea, from low altitudes to over 1500 m.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1997) (p. 60)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 26)
Voucher cited: St. John 15037
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Paulay, Gustav/Spencer, T./Oliver, Royce (1989) (p. 13)
Voucher cited: Paulay, Spencer & Schuster 691 (US)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10801 (PAP)
Adventice
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 642810)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Nu‘utele Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 427961)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 100405)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28561)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1968) (voucher ID: BISH 28610)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 109722)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 109728)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 77)
"Probably growing on all islands of the group".
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 77)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15202, Hürlmann 319
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109721)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Late Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1981) (p. 352)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 83)
Voucher cited: Crosby 257
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 77)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16041
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109720)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa Burm.f.
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1379)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 25)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 41)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 232)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forests, thickets, streamsides, humid open places; near sea level to 2100 m. Guangdong, SW Guangxi (Longzhou Xian, Pingxiang Shi), SW Guizhou (Anlong Xian, Wangmo Xian), Hainan, SE Xizang (Mêdog Xian), SE Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 302)
In moist places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 232)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Java
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 76)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Colima, Jalisco, Michoacan, Nayarit
Naturalized
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 234)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) probably native
Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (pp. 64, 76)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) uncertain if introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 28)
Weed of uncertain origin
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island   Holm, Leroy G./Plucknett, D. L./Pancho, J. V./Herberger, J. P. (1977) (p. 232)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"In waste places from 0-1100 m throughout the island".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 23)
Previously reported as Commelina benghalensis?
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 1, 6)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 7697)
Taxon name on voucher: Commelina diffusa
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 118)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Cousin Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R. (1983) (p. 22)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 52118 (US)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Control: 

Chemical:  "Sensitive to hormone type herbicides.  HAVO staff controlled honohono with foliar applications of triclopyr ester at 1%"  (Motooka et al., 2003).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 26 DEC 2011.