Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Combretum indicum
(L.) DeFilipps, Combretaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk; score: 10 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Combretum indicum)

Other Latin names:  Combretum indicum (L.) Jongkind; Kleinia quadricolor Crantz; Mekistus sinensis Loureiro ex B. A. Gomes; Ourouparia enormis Yamamoto; Quisqualis indica L.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Rangoon creeper, Rangoon-creeper, quisqualis

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Climbing shrub. Leaves oblong-lanceolate to elliptic, acuminate, the petiole bases persistent and thorn-like. Flowers fragrant in terminal drooping spikes. Calyx tube c. 8 cm long; lobes short, triangular. Petals white, becoming red. Fruit narrowly ellipsoid, 5-angled." (Flora of Zimbabwe, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

"A deciduous climber with cylindrical branches, covered with soft, brown-golden pubescence, rarely sparsely glandular. Leaves 4-10 (-15) x 3-6 (9) cm with dense tomentum to almost glabrous, minutely nodular on the upper surface, acuminate, with subcordate base, petiole tomentose to partially tomentose, 415 (20) mm long, persistent, often converted into curved spines. Spikes 210 cm long. Flowers 79 cm long, 3.75 cm across, at first white, soon turning red with lanceolate or elliptic, acuminate, 610 x 23 mm bracts. Hypanthium 4.5-7 cm long, lower portion 5 angled, ellipsoid, 4-6 mm long, sericeous with papillae on the inner surface; upper portion narrowly tublar, slightly constricted above the ovary, expanded at the apex into 5 triangular 12 mm long acute teeth, teeth tomentose to partially glabrous. Stamens 8-8.5 mm long with 1 mm long anthers. Style filiform, equal to the length of calyx tube, stigma knob shaped. Fruit narrowly elliptic, pubescent, 2.5-3.5 cm long, 712 mm broad, five angled, angles scarcely winged." (Missouri Botanical Garden, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

"Lianas to 8 m tall. Branchlets brownish yellow pubescent. Petiole 5-9 mm, without an inflated joint near base, densely brown pilose when young; leaf blade mostly oblong-elliptic or elliptic, 5-18 2.5-7 cm, abaxially sometimes brown pilose, adaxially glabrous except slightly brown pilose on midvein, finely white verruculose, rarely tomentose on both surfaces, base obtuse, apex acuminate to shortly caudate; lateral veins in 7 or 8 pairs. Inflorescences lax; bracts deciduous, filiform-linear to ovate, 3-12 mm, brown pilose. Flowers fragrant. Calyx tube 5-9 cm, yellow pilose; lobes deltoid, 2-3 mm, apex acute or shortly acuminate but not cuspidate. Petals opening white, later turning yellowish abaxially and reddish adaxially, obovate to oblanceolate, 10-24 4-10 mm, apex rounded to obtuse. Fruit red when young, greenish black or brown when ripe, fusiform or narrowly ovoid, sharply 5-ridged, 2.7-4 1.2-2.3 cm, glabrous, apex mucronate. Fl. Mar-Nov, fr. Jun-Nov." (Missouri Botanical Garden, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

"Twining liana, attaining 6 m in length. Stem much branched from the base; branches cylindrical, somewhat compressed in the area of the nodes, glabrous or puberulous, usually with the pith hollow; adult stems deciduous, with 3 persistent spines at the nodes. Leaves opposite or subopposite; blades 6-17.5 2.2-7 cm, elliptical, oblong, or lanceolate, chartaceous, the apex acuminate, the base rounded, the margins entire; upper surface glabrous, with a prominent midvein; lower surface ferruginous-tomentulose or puberulous, with prominent venation; petioles 5-12 mm long. Flowers sessile or subsessile, in terminal spikes or racemes on short lateral branches. Hypanthium green, tubular, 4-6.5 mm long, pubescent; sepals green, triangular, ca. 2 mm long; petals 5, oblong or oblanceolate, 1-1.5 cm long, pink, turning red when mature; stamens exserted, the filaments unequal; disc absent; style exserted. Fruit elliptical in outline, angular, with 5 narrow wings, ca. 3 cm long. ¶Phenology: Flowering from July to March. ¶Status [PIER ed.: in the United States]: Exotic, cultivated and naturalized, uncommon" (Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

"Niog-niogan [PIER ed.: Combretum indicum] is a large climbing, woody shrub reaching a length of 2 to 8 meters. Brown hairs give the younger parts a rusty appearance. Leaves are oblong to elliptic, opposite, 7 to 15 centimeters long, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are fragrant, tubular, showy, first white, then becoming red, reddish-purple or orange, exhibiting the range of colors in clusters, on the same flower stalk. Fruit is narrowly ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, with five, sharp, longitudinal angles or wings. Seeds are pentagonal and black." (Philippine Medicinal Plants)

Habitat/ecology:  Rain forests, low woods, thickets, hedges, mountains, dry hillsides, riversides, roadsides, wasteland, also cultivated; below 1500 m. (Missouri Botanical Garden, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

Elevational range: 200-600 m (Missouri Botanical Garden, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

Flowering/fruiting: "Throughout the year, rarely fruiting in Pakistan." (Missouri Botanical Garden, as cited in Encyclopedia of Life)

"Rangoon creeper is found in thickets or secondary forests of the Philippines, India and Malaysia. It has since been cultivated and naturalized in tropical areas." (Encyclopedia of Life)

"In thickets and secondary forests throughout the Philippines." (Philippine Medicinal Plants)

Propagation:  (no propagation information known by PIER)

Native range:  Combretum indicum is native to Africa (Tanzania, Angola, Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo, Zaire), China, Taiwan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Vietnam, Philippines, Singapore, and Papua New Guinea. (GRIN)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519
Pacific
Pacific
Malaya native
cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("commonly cultivated" [no country defined])
Pacific
Pacific
Pacific islands cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Tauʻolunga (2007)
accessed 20180519
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Asia
Asia
Asia (southeast) native
cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("commonly cultivated" [no country defined])
Asia
Asia
Laos cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Asia
Asia
Myanmar cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 (as both Myamnar and Burma) ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Asia
Asia
Nepal cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Asia
Asia
Pakistan cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated in the plains of Pakistan")
Asia
Asia (Pacific rim)
Bangladesh cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Central America introduced
cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
China
China
China (People's Republic of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of)   Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 (Vietnam; South Vietnam) ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
India (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Andaman Islands
Andaman Islands cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Indian Ocean islands
Indian Ocean islands
Indian Ocean islands cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Africa
Africa
Africa (eastern) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("coastal E Africa") ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Africa
Africa
Africa (tropical) introduced
cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
Africa
Africa
Africa (west) (tropical) native
cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("commonly cultivated" [no country defined])
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands
St. Croix   Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands
St. John   Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519
Caribbean Islands
Caribbean Islands
St. Thomas   Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519
India
India
India (Republic of) cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
South America
South America
South America introduced
cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics")
United States of America
United States
United States introduced
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("Regularly occurring")
World
World
Old World tropics cultivated
Encyclopedia of Life (year unknown)
accessed 20180519 ("cultivated pantropically")

Comments:  Combretum indicum is widely cultivated in the tropics. Used as an ornamental and (medicinally) as a source of quisqualic acid. (GRIN)

"Notes: Grown in gardens, Native of Asia." "Ornamental plant, native to tropical Asia, naturalized along roadsides." "widely cultivated and often naturalized in the tropics...." "Rangoon creeper is commonly cultivated for its beautiful and fragnant [sic] flowers." "[C]ultivated pantropically." (from various sources cited in the Encyclopedia of Life)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Combretum indicum, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.