Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Coix lacryma-jobi
Linnaeus, Poaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  More information needed, score: 4 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Bikol: barubaióko, bintíkai, koldásan, tigbí, tigbíkai

Bontoc: atákai

Cebuano: adlái, aglái, alimúdias, damáu, katigbí, lamúdias, paiás, paliás, pintáka, tidbí

Chamorro: bilen

Chinese: yi mi, yi yi

Chuukese: fetin umuno

English: adlay, adlay millet, Job's tears

Fijian: sila

Filipino: bilen

French: larmes de Job, larmilles

Hawaiian: kūkaekōlea, ‘ohe‘ohe, pū'ohe'ohe, pūpū kōlea

Ibatan: abúkai, agágai

Ifugao: kibaoung

Iloko: atákai

Japanese: hato-mugi, juzudama, zyudu-dama

Korean: julmu

Kwara‘ae: sila

Maori (Cook Islands): poepoe

Niuean: tagataga, tangatanga

Palauan: demairush, demairuuch, pa nga ruiz, tauiir, taviir

Pampangan: balantákan

Pohnpeian: rosario

Samoan: sagasaga, sagasaga, sagisagi, sanasana, sanasana, sanasana, sanasana Samoa

Spanish: camandula, lágrima de nossa senhora, lagrima de San Pedro, lágrimas de Job, lágrimas de San Pedro, Santa Juana

Subanen: liás

Tagalog: kudlásan, tigbí

Tahitian: poepoe

Tongan: hana, hana tuikahoa

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Robust annuals; culms 100-300 cm tall, many-branched.  Sheaths loose, terete, striate, glabrous; ligule membranous, 1.5-2 mm long, margins erose and minutely fringed; blades 10-50 cm long, 20-50 cm wide, glabrous but rather coarse. Inflorescences numerous, terminal and axillary, each consisting of separate pistillate and staminate racemes, cupules borne on long stout peduncles from axis of upper leaves, white or bluish, bony, lustrous, globose-ovoid, 5-15 mm long; upper pistillate floret fertile, lemma scale-like, 3-5-nerved; palea reduced to a small scale; staminodia 3; staminate raceme 3-5 cm long, the spikelets 7-10 mm long, glumes equal to the spikelet in length, coriaceous-membranous, broadly lanceolate, glabrous, smooth, lemma membranous, lanceolate, 3-nerved, glabrous, palea similar in shape and texture to lemma, 2-nerved.  Caryopsis broadly ellipsoid to subglobose, 2.5-5 mm long."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1517).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common along streams and ditches, but also found on slopes in disturbed mesic forest, 0-610 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1517).  In Fiji, "common...from sea level to about 900 m.  It occurs in damp places, along edges of streams, crest clearings, waste places and along roadsides." (Smith, 1979; p. 388). In New Caledonia, "peut-être d'introduction pré-européenne. Peu planté à présent; largement répandu et parfois commun en lieux humides" (MacKee, 1994; p. 58). "Occasional to common in wetlands, wetland crops, and roadside ditches" (Whistler, 1988; p. 49).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Tropical Asia, naturalized throughout the tropics and probably an early introduction to the Pacific.  "An aboriginal introduction to Western Polynesia" (Whistler, 1988; p. 49).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 9283, Whistler 1361, Whistler 3310
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9283 (BISH)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Anon. (1988) (p. 1)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 113)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 10)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 126)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2412 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 55)
Vouchers cited: F.R. Fosberg 58528 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2412 (BISH), M. Hunt 1 (NY, PTBG), N.L.H. Krauss 1897c (BISH), L. Stemmermann 3436 (BISH), C.Y.C. Wong 52 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 134)
Taxon name on voucher: Coix lacryma-jobi L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Matuku Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Moala Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Vouchers cited: Tothill F.428, DA 3500
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 388-389)
Vouchers cited: Smith 4289, Gillespie 4308, DA 9725, DA 13017, DA 7880, DA 9508, DA 8092, DA 731, DA 882, DA 3524, DA 8462, DA 10492, Parks 20240, DA L.12541
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 7)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: D.H. Lorence & W.L. Wagner 6219 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4254 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Fosberg 61210
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Huahine Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence & R. Tahuaitu 11667 (PAP), F.R. Fosberg 61210 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 11)
Naturalized
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: H.M. Smith 183
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Vouchers cited: Florence 2281, BRY 25363
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Florence 5236
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Taha‘a Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5236 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 332)
Voucher cited: Florence 5236
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2881 (PAP), P. Morat 6394 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 5751 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11185 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6139 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 240)
Voucher cited: Stone 5018 (GUAM), G.E.S. 188
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1517-1518)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1517-1518)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1517-1518)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1517-1518)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1517-1518)
Voucher cited: Bryan s. n. (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue et parfois commune en lieux humides.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Vieillard 1467
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Largement répandue et parfois commune en lieux humides.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île des Pins (Isle of Pines) introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 238)
Voucher cited: CHR 168803
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
abo. intro.
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 49)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 25)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 10207 (BISH)
"Occasionally planted about dwellings".
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1970) (voucher ID: BNM 133)
Taxon name on voucher: Coix lacryma-jobi L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Peleliu (Beliliou) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 44)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 25)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 53)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 29)
Throughout the Philippines in the settled areas at low and medium altitudes, in most or all islands and provinces; common.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 23)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11207
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Western Samoa Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 49)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
invasive
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 67)
"Occasional throughout Tonga"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 67)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15659
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Ilolahia 120, Soakai 632
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 67)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15230, Hürlmann 114
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 98)
Vouchers cited: Soakai 760, Soakai 886
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 67)
Voucher cited: Yuncher 16032
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 61)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 90)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Mostly as a garden escape.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Streams, marshy valleys, moist fields, by houses, often cultivated. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 329)
In wet places.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 93)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 93)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 93)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 93)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 93)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 93)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 28)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Streams, marshy valleys, moist fields, by houses, often cultivated.
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 131)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 57)
Voucher cited: Todd 54


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.