Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Coffea liberica
W. Bull ex Hiern, Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: da li ka fei

English: excelsa coffee, Liberian coffee, liberica coffee

French: caféier de Liberia

Maori (Cook Islands): kaope papa‘ā

Pohnpeian: marasau, wahnrose pwetepwet

Spanish: cafeto de Liberia

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A robust small to medium tree (when not pruned); leaves oblong-obovate, very coriaceous, acuminate, base acute, 15-35 cm long, 6-15 cm wide, on petiole of 1-2 cm; lateral nerves 6-12 pairs; cymes few together; flowers solitary on peduncle; pedicels 2-5 mm; calyx-tube 4 mm; corolla 2.5-3 cm long, 6-11-lobed; ripe fruit large, 1.8-3 cm long, red, with thick mesocarp" (Stone, 1970; p. 542).

Habitat/ecology:  In Fiji, "infrequently cultivated...at elevations from near sea level to about 200 m, and also sparingly naturalized in light forest and along trails (Smith, 1988; pp. 224-225).

Propagation:  Seeds, often dispersed by birds, fruit bats and rats (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 102).

Native range:  West Africa and eastward to Sudan and Uganda (Smith, 1988; pp. 224-225).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 394)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea liberica
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 127)
Vouchers cited: A. Dores 229 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 60434 (BISH), S. Perlman 21404 (PTBG)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 46142)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea liberica
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 224-225)
Voucher cited: DA 15767
Sparingly naturalized.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1988) (pp. 224-225)
Vouchers cited: DA 11638, DA 1550, DA 5515, DA 13223
Sparingly naturalized.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 24)
Voucher cited: St. John 14840 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 232)
Voucher cited: Florence 9298
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 9298 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 232)
Voucher cited: Birnbaum 103
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4654 (PAP), P. Birnbaum 103 (PAP)
Naturalisée.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J.Florence (legit A. Lacour) 7897 (PAP)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 542)
Present status unknown.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 264)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Staples, George W./Imada, Clyde T./Herbst, Derral R. (2002) (pp. 14-15)
Voucher cited: C. Imada & G. Staples 2000-11 (BISH)
Widespread
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 123)
Voucher cited: MacKee 38080
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 175-176)
Voucher cited: CHR 170412
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 264)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1966) (voucher ID: BNM 656)
Taxon name on voucher: Coffea liberica Miers?
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 535)
Cultivated.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 544)
Somewhat cultivated.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 102)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated in moist, warm to cool regions.
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 28)
Cultivated only
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 110)

Comments:  In Guam, "sparingly cultivated..., perhaps no longer persisting" (Stone, 1970; p. 542).  Introduced experimentally to Niue (Sykes, 1970; pp. 175-176) but not noted on more recent surveys.  See also C. arabica.


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This page was created on 28 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 18 MAR 2008.