Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Citrus aurantium
L., Rutaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Citrus bigarradia Loisel.; Citrus vulgaris Risso

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: kahet

Chinese: suan cheng

Chuukese: kurukur, kurukuri

English: bigarade, bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange

Fijian: moli jamu, moli kurukuru

French: bigaradier, oranger amer

Japanese: daidai, kaisei-tō

Korean: gwanggyulnamu

Mangarevan: orangi

Niuean: moli

Pohnpeian: orens

Samoan: moli ‘aina, moli aina, moli ‘aina, moli sāmoa, moli sāmoa

Spanish: naranja agria, naranja amarga, naranja mateca

Tahitian: avani

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree; spines slender, usually short; but stout spines up to 7-8 cm long on youngest fast-growing shoots; leaves ovate, blunt, on petioles 2-3 cm long, rather broadly winged, narrowing toward base; flowers bisexuual with a few staminate; fruits subspherical, 5-10 cm broad, orange, slightly rough; pulp orange, but very sour; center becoming hollow at last, hence fruit able to float"  (Stone, 1970; pp. 353-354).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Presumably a native of southeastern Asia (Smith, 1985; pp. 520-521).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
"A few seedling trees are found around every village".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
"A few seedling trees are found around every village".
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 44)
"A few seedling trees are found around every village".
American Samoa
Swain's Island
Swain's Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1983) (p. 14)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3431
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 86)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Aguijan (Agiguan, Aguihan) Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 39)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
cultivated
Falanruw, M. V. C. (1989) (p. 8)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Asuncion Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1977) (p. 30)
Voucher cited: Falanruw 3091 (US)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 39)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 39)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Observed in survey, no herbarium record.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namoluk (Nómwunuuk) Atoll introduced
invasive
cultivated
Marshall, Mae/Fosberg, F. R. (1975) (p. 37)
Voucher cited: Marshall 64 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Nukuoro Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 133)
Vouchers cited: E. Eperiam 28 (NY), M.C. Neal 46 (BISH), S.H. Riesenberg 46 (BISH)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 520-521)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Akamaru Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 16)
Voucher cited: St. John 14762 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 39349)
Taxon name on voucher: Citrus #aurantium
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 135)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 135)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 135)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (pp. 353-354)
Voucher cited: Stone 4232 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 122)
Kiribati
Line Islands
Flint Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold/Fosberg, F. Raymond (1937) (p. 4)
Voucher cited: St. John & Fosberg 17454 (BISH)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 124)
Vouchers cited: Baumann & Guillaumin 7155, Hürlimann 59, MacKee 40832
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 182)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1943) (p. 70)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9760 (BISH)
"A few trees grow spontaneously along roadsides and in thickets"
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 41)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 277)
Planted, abundant.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 342)
Usually or always planted.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 38)
Voucher cited: Fosberg & B. Christian 11302
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated and sometimes naturalized in most of China S of the Qin Ling.
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   Stoddart, D. R./Taylor, J. D., eds. (1971) (p. 152)
"Bitter oranges recorded by Bourne (Hemsley 1884, p. 334)."
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 34)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Rivers, Julie (2004) (pp. 5, 8)
Maldives
Maldive Islands
Maldive Islands   Fosberg, F. R. (1957) (p. 22)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 136)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Frégate Island   Robertson, S. A./Todd, D. M. (1983) (p. 60)

Comments:  Reported as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 21 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 23 MAR 2009.