Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Citharexylum caudatum
L., Verbenaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

English: fiddlewood, juniper berry

Spanish: pendula de sierra

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Large shrubs or small trees up to 20 m tall; branches nearly terete, glabrous.  Leaves somewhat leathery, oblong to obovate or elliptic-oblanceolate, 7-16 cm long, 3.5-5 cm wide, glabrous, upper surface glossy, lower surface dull, apex rounded or obtuse, base cuneate, petioles green, 1-2 cm long.  Flowers in narrow, elongate-recurved racemes 4-10 cm long, pedicels usually 2-5 mm long; calyx campanulate, ca. 3 mm long, the rim unlobed and truncate in fruit; corolla white.  Fruit purplish black, oblong-globose, ca. 5-8 mm long"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1317).

Habitat/ecology:  This evergreen shrub to small tree forms dense thickets in wet habitats. It has many characteristics in common with Citharexylum spinosum (Smith, 1985; p. 188).  In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and now naturalized and rapidly spreading via bird dispersal"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1317); displacing existing vegetation in mesic to humid lowland forests and other non-cropland"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Propagation:  "Prolific seeder, spread by birds"  (Motooka et al., 2003).

Native range:  Mexico and Central America to northern South America and the West Indies (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1317).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H70137 (BISH, PTBG), Starr & Martz 010801-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2004) (p. 28)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 020225-2 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (1999) (p. 14)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 980402-49
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1317, 1895)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
Hong Kong native
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 229)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Chemical:  2,4-D or triclopyr should be effective.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 16 JAN 2011.