Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cinchona pubescens
Vahl, Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cinchona succirubra Pavón ex Klotzsch

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji na shu

English: quinine, red cinchona, red Peruvian-bark, red quinine tree, redbark

French: arbre à quinine, quinquina rouge

Spanish: cascarilla, cinchona, hoja ahumada, hoja de zambo, quinoa, roja, rosada

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree to ca. 12 m tall.  Leaves opposite, simple; blade broadly ovate, ca. 10-22 cm long, upper surface shiny green at first, turning red with age, margins entire.  Flowers in terminal panicles; corolla pinkish, salverform with 5 lobes, ca. 1.5 cm long, throat covered with whitish pink hairs; stamens 5.  Fruit a capsule, oblong, 1-2 cm long; seeds numerous, winged."  (McMullen, 1999; pp. 91-92)

"Tree to 10 m tall and 20 cm diameter at breast height.  Young branches sparsely to densely pubescent.  Stipules sparsely pubescent throughout, 1.2-2.6 x 0.5-1.5 cm; petioles 1.2-5 cm long, sparsely puberulent or hirtellous; leaf blades thin, papyraceous when dry, 8.3-23 x 5.3-21 cm (often larger on vegetative shoots), elliptic or ovate to suborbicular (length/width 1.1-2.1), cuneate to rounded or truncate (occasionally subcordate) at base, obtuse at apex, secondary veins 7-11 pairs, level to prominulous above, prominulous beneath, tertiary venation ± distinctly visible, adaxial surface usually matte, usually ± puberulent or hirtellous on midrib and secondary veins, sometimes also on intervenous surface, sometimes entirely glabrous, abaxial surface ± puberulent or hirtellous on veins beneath, usually also on intervenous surface, margin not revolute, domatia absent (or very indicting, pouch-shaped).  Inflorescence axes ± densely pubescent.  Calyx 1.3-2.8 mm long with lobes 0.4-1.2 mm, sparsely to densely pubescent outside, glabrous inside, without colleters; corolla pinkish or purplish, paler at base, tube 8.8-14 mm long, glabrous or sparsely villous close to stamen attachments, lobes 3.9-6 mm long; filaments attached 3.5-6.7 mm above base of corolla tube (35-48% of tube length), 1.1-2.5 mm long in longistylous flowers, 4.4-5.5 mm in brevistylous ones, anthers 2.8-3.9 x 0.6-0.9 mm; ovary densely pubescent, 1.8-3.3 x 1.3-2.4 mm; style 8.5-9.7 mm long in longistylous flowers, 3.5-4.7 in brevistylous ones, stigmatic lobes 1.5-3.1 (-4.1) mm.  Capsules ellipsoid to subcylindrical, 13-41 x 5-7 mm, with thin, papyraceous to chartaceous endocarp.  Seeds 6.9-8.5 x 2.2-2.8 mm including wing"  (Andersson & Taylor, 1994; pp. 54-58).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests, mesic sites.  The tree is native in neotropical forests where it is usually not a dominant species.  Where invasive, it becomes dominant and reaches high densities.  The tree shades out native plants with its large leaves.  It grows rapidly and has a wide ecological tolerance.  The tree is shade tolerant; seedlings establish well even in strong shade"  (Weber, 2003; p. 106).

In Hawai‘i, planted and "at least sparingly naturalized" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1120). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; pp. 91-92).

Propagation:  Wind dispersed seeds.

Native range:  Costa Rica to Venezuela and Peru; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 231-232)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 2613, Fosberg & Stone 61304
Sparingly naturalized.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491692)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583630)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583631)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583632)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599274)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599276)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599277)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens var. succiruba (Pav. ex Klotzsch)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 599744)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1979) (voucher ID: PTBG 37190)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1120)
Voucher cited: Jacobi & Bertrand 1138 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1120)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1120)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Guangxi (Nanning), Hainan, Taiwan, S. Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (p. 58)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (p. 58)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (pp. 54-58)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chiriqui
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (p. 58)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated.

Comments:  Very invasive in the Galápagos Islands. Supposedly introduced experimentally to Palau by the Japanese (Fosberg et al, 1993; p. 54), but not now present.

Control: 

Physical: Grubbing, but root fragments can regrow.

Chemical: Treating cut stumps with herbicides (such as Tordon) can prevent regrowth.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 MAR 2013.