Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cinchona pubescens
Vahl, Rubiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 9 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cinchona succirubra Pavón ex Klotzsch

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: ji na shu

English: quinine, red Peruvian-bark, red cinchona, red quinine tree, redbark

French: arbre à quinine, quinquina rouge

Spanish: cascarilla, cinchona, hoja ahumada, hoja de zambo, quinoa, roja, rosada

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Tree to ca. 12 m tall.  Leaves opposite, simple; blade broadly ovate, ca. 10-22 cm long, upper surface shiny green at first, turning red with age, margins entire.  Flowers in terminal panicles; corolla pinkish, salverform with 5 lobes, ca. 1.5 cm long, throat covered with whitish pink hairs; stamens 5.  Fruit a capsule, oblong, 1-2 cm long; seeds numerous, winged."  (McMullen, 1999; pp. 91-92)

"Tree to 10 m tall and 20 cm diameter at breast height.  Young branches sparsely to densely pubescent.  Stipules sparsely pubescent throughout, 1.2-2.6 x 0.5-1.5 cm; petioles 1.2-5 cm long, sparsely puberulent or hirtellous; leaf blades thin, papyraceous when dry, 8.3-23 x 5.3-21 cm (often larger on vegetative shoots), elliptic or ovate to suborbicular (length/width 1.1-2.1), cuneate to rounded or truncate (occasionally subcordate) at base, obtuse at apex, secondary veins 7-11 pairs, level to prominulous above, prominulous beneath, tertiary venation ± distinctly visible, adaxial surface usually matte, usually ± puberulent or hirtellous on midrib and secondary veins, sometimes also on intervenous surface, sometimes entirely glabrous, abaxial surface ± puberulent or hirtellous on veins beneath, usually also on intervenous surface, margin not revolute, domatia absent (or very indicting, pouch-shaped).  Inflorescence axes ± densely pubescent.  Calyx 1.3-2.8 mm long with lobes 0.4-1.2 mm, sparsely to densely pubescent outside, glabrous inside, without colleters; corolla pinkish or purplish, paler at base, tube 8.8-14 mm long, glabrous or sparsely villous close to stamen attachments, lobes 3.9-6 mm long; filaments attached 3.5-6.7 mm above base of corolla tube (35-48% of tube length), 1.1-2.5 mm long in longistylous flowers, 4.4-5.5 mm in brevistylous ones, anthers 2.8-3.9 x 0.6-0.9 mm; ovary densely pubescent, 1.8-3.3 x 1.3-2.4 mm; style 8.5-9.7 mm long in longistylous flowers, 3.5-4.7 in brevistylous ones, stigmatic lobes 1.5-3.1 (-4.1) mm.  Capsules ellipsoid to subcylindrical, 13-41 x 5-7 mm, with thin, papyraceous to chartaceous endocarp.  Seeds 6.9-8.5 x 2.2-2.8 mm including wing"  (Andersson & Taylor, 1994; pp. 54-58).

Habitat/ecology:  "Forests, mesic sites.  The tree is native in neotropical forests where it is usually not a dominant species.  Where invasive, it becomes dominant and reaches high densities.  The tree shades out native plants with its large leaves.  It grows rapidly and has a wide ecological tolerance.  The tree is shade tolerant; seedlings establish well even in strong shade"  (Weber, 2003; p. 106).

In Hawai‘i, planted and "at least sparingly naturalized" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1120). Moist uplands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; pp. 91-92).

Propagation:  Wind dispersed seeds.

Native range:  Costa Rica to Venezuela and Peru; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 231-232)
Vouchers cited: Sachet 2613, Fosberg & Stone 61304
Sparingly naturalized.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 491692)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583630)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583631)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 583632)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599274)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599276)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 599277)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens var. succiruba (Pav. ex Klotzsch)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 599744)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1979) (voucher ID: PTBG 37190)
Taxon name on voucher: Cinchona pubescens Vahl
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1120)
Voucher cited: Jacobi & Bertrand 1138 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1120)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1120)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (p. 58)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Chiriqui
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Guangxi (Nanning), Hainan, Taiwan, S. Yunnan.
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (p. 58)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (pp. 54-58)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
Andersson, Lennart/Taylor, Charlotte M. (1994) (p. 58)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated.

Comments:  Very invasive in the Galápagos Islands. Supposedly introduced experimentally to Palau by the Japanese (Fosberg et al, 1993; p. 54), but not now present.

Control: 

Physical: Grubbing, but root fragments can regrow.

Chemical: Treating cut stumps with herbicides (such as Tordon) can prevent regrowth.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 11 MAR 2013.