Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chrysophyllum oliviforme
L., Sapotaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 7 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Chrysophyllum monopyrenum Sw.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: damson plum, satinleaf, wild star-apple

French: caïmite marron

Spanish: caimitillo, caimitillo de perro, camitillo cimarró

Habit:  tree

Description:  "Small tree 5-7 m tall; young twigs, lower leaf surface, and flower buds densely golden-brown or rusty-brown with silky sericeous pubescence; apex of lamina abruptly short acuminate; flowers 5-merous, in axillary fascicles; fruits ellipsoid (olive-shaped), 2-2.5 x 1 cm, 1-seeded, fleshy, ripening purple, edible" (Lorence et al., 1995; p. 54).

Tree with "...5-merous flowers, staminodes absent, lower leaf surface densely brown or rusty tomentose, and purple 1-seeded fruit up to 2 cm long..." (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1231).

Habitat/ecology:  "Satinleaf grows on a wide variety of soils in all textures and in pH's from about 5 to 8, and has a moderate tolerance to salt (Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences 2002). It grows on coastal sands and shallow clays over limestone in Puerto Rico, in pinelands and hammocks of the everglades and keys of Florida, and in low elevation  moist, secondary forests and Eucalyptus plantations in Florida (Little and Wadsworth 1964). Satinleaf occurs in remnant and middle secondary forests. When young, it demonstrates an intermediate tolerance to shade and can grow and develop in the understory of relatively low-density forests. To bear fruit, it must have increased light, as in intermediate and codominant crown positions.   They are resistant to drought and storm damage (Gilman and Watson 1993)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Low elevation moist forests. On Kauai, Hawai‘i, naturalized in secondary forest, secondary thicket and among Eucalyptus forestry plantings (Lorence et al., 1995; p. 54). Often planted as a street tree.

Propagation:  Seeds distributed by frugivorous birds.

Native range:  US (Florida), West Indies, Central America.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 29)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 94)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 29)
"Potential invader".
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Chrysophyllum monopyrenum Sw. Vouchers cited: J. Florence 2828 (PAP), J. Florence 3348 (PAP)
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Herbst 9797 (BISH)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy W./Wagner, Warren L. (1995) (p. 54)
Vouchers cited: D. Lorence et al. 5727 (PTBG), T. Flynn et al. 3180 (PTBG), J. Fay et al. 240 (PTBG)
Naturalized in secondary forest, secondary thicket, and among Eucalyptus forestry plantings.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1231)
Possible escapes.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 25)
West Maui. Vouchers cited: Oppenheimer H110012 (BISH, PTBG), Oppenheimer H50114 (BISH, PTBG), Starr & K. Martz 001128-4 (BISH), Oppenheimer H100111 (BISH, PTBG). Subject of eradication program.
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1231)
Possible escapes.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Shannon, Robynn K./Herbst, Derral R. (1997) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: E. Funk s.n. (BISH)
Naturalized
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 26)
Cultivated only
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
Francis, John K., ed. (2009)
Endangered in the wild.

Comments:  A common ornamental tree.


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 22 AUG 2009.