Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chloris virgata
Sw., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Chloris elegans Kunth

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: hu wei cao

English: feather finger grass, feather windmill grass, feathered chloris, feathertop grass, feathertop Rhodes grass, feathery Rhodes grass, hairy Rhodes grass, oldland grass, showy chloris, sweet grass, woolly-top Rhodes grass

Kosraean: muh-shah-shruh

Spanish: verdillo plumerito, zacate pluma

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Annuals; culms erect or geniculately ascending, up to 10 dm tall, occasionally rooting at lower nodes.  Basal sheaths strongly keeled and often flabellate, glabrous; ligule inconspicuous, membranous, ca. 0.5 mm long; blades flat, 10-30 cm long, 2-6 mm wide, tapering at apex, upper surface scabrous, lower surface glabrous.  Inflorescences of 4-12 digitate, erect to spreading, white to yellowish brown, feathery spikes 2-10 cm long, axils silky villous; spikelets crowded, (2) 3-flowered; first glume 1.5-2.5 mm long, second glume 2.5-4.5 mm long, apex more or less with a short awn-point; first lemma obliquely obovate in side view, 2.5-4 mm long, margins and keel ciliate, apex with a crown of hairs 1.5-4 mm long, awn 5-15 mm long, callus rounded, pilose; palea lanceolate, ca. 0.3 mm long, 2-nerved, apical margin ciliate; second lemma slightly projecting from the side of the fertile lemma, oblong, 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous, with an awn 5-12 mm long; apical lemma an awnless clavate scale 0.5-1.2 mm long.  Caryopsis golden, cylindrical, 1.5-2 mm long."  (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1515-1516).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  Aggressive invader of degraded land that out-competes native species (Smith, 2002; p. 72).  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common along roadsides, in dry pastures, and in open, mesic shrubland, 0-410 m". (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1515-1516). In New Caledonia, "assez commun en terrains vagues près de Nouméa" (MacKee, 1994; p. 58). Arid lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999; p. 240). In Australia, "a variety of habitats, particularly disturbed areas and roadsides; also levee banks, creek lines and gardens" (Smith, 2002; p. 72).

Propagation:  "Seed is dispersed short distance by wind and water, also as a contaminant of hay and by animals".

Native range:  Widespread in the tropics; also cultivated and naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 7)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Campéon Islet, Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Gardner por Floreana Island, Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Baltra Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Daphne Mayor Island, Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Seymour Norte Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Fé Group
Santa Fé Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Rábida Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10717 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Makatea (Ma‘atea) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tikehau (Tikahau) Atoll introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 10)
Previously reported, not observed in this survey.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (pp. 25-26)
Voucher cited: K.R. Wood 11538 (PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1515-1516)
Voucher cited: Munro 127 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Herbst, Derral R./Clayton, W. D. (1998) (p. 21)
Voucher cited: Uta‘i 8 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2000) (pp. 14-15)
Voucher cited: J. Rémy 26 (BISH)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Guillaumin & Baumann 6822
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 4)
Voucher: Lorence 9816 (PTBG, BNM, BISH, NY, US)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 109)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris virgata Sw.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 50)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (2000) (p. 11)
Voucher cited: Starr & Martz 990507-5 (BISH)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 72)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 72)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Common on stony slopes, steppe, sandy riversides, roadsides, fields, plantations, frequent on walls and roofs; sea level to 3700 m. Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan.
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 52)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Kyushu
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)

Control: 

Physical:  Pull or dig out.

Chemical:  Spray with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 103).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 2 AUG 2002 and was last updated on 10 MAR 2013.