Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chloris radiata
(L.) Sw., Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Agrostis radiata L.; Chloris gracilis` P. Durand

Common name(s): [more details]

English: plush grass, radiate fingergrass, radiate windmill grass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Loosely tufted annual [grass], the culms branching, up to 60 cm high; often purplish at the nodes; leaf-sheaths glabrous, up to 7.5 cm long; blade to 15 cm long and 3 mm wide.  Spikes 5-15 usually 10 or more, up to 7.5 cm long, slender, silvery-purplish; rachis slightly hairy.  Glumes narrow.  Fertile lemma 1.5 mm long, awned; awn slender, 3-9 mm long; rudiment of 1 reduced sterile lemma with a shorter awn"  (Stone, 1970; p. 195).

"Habit: Annual. Culms 30-60 cm long; without nodal roots, or rooting from lower nodes. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades 10-30 cm long; 5-10 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface pilose. Leaf-blade apex acute. Inflorescence: Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 5-15; digitate; simply spaced, or in several whorls; unilateral; 5-8 cm long. Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Fertile spikelets: Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets cuneate; laterally compressed; 2.8-3.3 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus pubescent; obtuse. Glumes: Glumes persistent; similar; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma; gaping. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.7-1.6 mm long; 0.4-0.6 times length of upper glume; membranous; 1-keeled; 1-veined. Lower glume primary vein scaberulous. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 2-2.7 mm long; 0.7-0.8 times length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; 1-keeled; 1-veined. Upper glume primary vein scaberulous. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume apex acute. Florets: Fertile lemma elliptic; laterally compressed; lanceolate in profile; 2.8-3.3 mm long; cartilaginous; pallid; keeled; 3-veined. Lemma midvein eciliate. Lemma lateral veins close to margins. Lemma margins ciliolate; hairy above. Lemma apex acute; awned; 1-awned. Principal lemma awn subapical; 6-13 mm long overall. Apical sterile florets 1 in number; barren; lanceolate; 0.4-0.7 mm long. Apical sterile lemmas acute; awned; 1-awned. Apical sterile lemma awns subapical; 3-5 mm long; 1 per spikelet in number. Flower: Lodicules 2; cuneate; fleshy. Anthers 3. Stigmas 2. Fruit: Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; ellipsoid; trigonous; 1.4-1.5 mm long. Hilum punctiform" (GrassBase).

Habitat/ecology:  Abandoned fields, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in mesic sites along roadsides and in disturbed areas and fields"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1515). In Guam, "abandoned fields and roadsides; often invading neglected pastures" (Stone, 1970; p. 195).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Jamaica, the West Indies and Tropical America; widespread through introductions.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 83855)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Anatahan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 7)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 123725)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 123724)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Española Group
Española Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Fernandina Group
Fernandina Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Wolf, Isabela Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Mao Islet, Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island possibly introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 26)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 123718)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 195)
Vouchers cited: Stone 4325 (GUAM), Stone 4419 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 123712)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 123726)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1962) (voucher ID: BISH 123728)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 25)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L. (2003) (p. 20)
Voucher cited: Oppenheimer H110124 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
Voucher cited: Heller 1963 (BISH)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 80)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1977) (voucher ID: BISH 428425)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1977) (voucher ID: BNM 10011)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3134)
Taxon name on voucher: Chloris radiata (L.) Sw.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 48)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Rare
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 85)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 30 NOV 2008.