Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chloris gayana
Kunth, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Reject, score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Chloris abyssinica Hochst. ex A. Rich.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: fei zhou hu wei cao

English: Abyssinian Rhodes grass, hunyanigrass, Rhodes grass

French: chloris, herbe de Rhodes

Spanish: grama de Rodas, grama Rhodes, pasto de Rodas, zacate conejo

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Glabrous perennials; culms erect or sometimes decumbent, usually with long, stout, flattened, leafy stolons, occasionally rooting at lower nodes, 50-150 (-200) cm tall.  Lower sheaths about as long as internodes, upper sheaths somewhat shorter, striate, compressed, keeled; ligule membranous, ca 0.5 mm long, ciliate; blades flat, rarely involute, 10-50 cm long, 3-5 (-9) mm wide, usually keeled, upper surface near base sparsely papillose-hispid, apex attenuate.  Inflorescences of (5-) 7-20 digitate, ascending to spreading spikes 4-15 cm long, ascending when young, spreading or sometimes slightly reflexed when mature, rachis slender, scabrous, base tomentose; spikelets 3-4-flowered, pale yellowish brown, closely imbricate; glumes narrow, 1-nerved, the nerves scabrous, first glume ovate-elliptic, 1.5-2 mm long, apex obtuse or acute, second glume elliptic, 2.5-3.5 mm long, margins scarious, apex acute or bifid; first lemma broadly elliptic, irregularly rhomboid in profile, 3-3.5 mm long, ciliate and long-hispid toward apex, apex bifid, awn straight, 1-5 mm long, callus with a tuft of white hairs; palea 3-3.5 mm long, ciliate and long-hispid toward apex, apex bifid, awn straight, 1-5 mm long, callus with a tuft of white hairs; palea 3-3.5 mm long, often exceeding lemma, submembranous, glabrous or sparsely scaberulous on upper part, apex bifid; rudiment of 2 sterile florets, lower one narrow, obtuse, 2-2.5 mm long, with a straight awn 1-2 mm long, upper one minute, truncate.  Caryopsis ovoid, laterally compressed, ca 1.5 mm long" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1515, 1906).

Description from GrassBase.

Habitat/ecology:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized and common in open, disturbed areas, especially in pastures and along roadsides, 15-1,040 m" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1515).  In Guam, "occasional in cultivation" (Stone, 1970; p. 195).  In Fiji, an occasional escape (Smith, 1979; p. 310). In New Caledonia, "assez commun en pâturages et lieux incultes" (MacKee, 1994;p. 58).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Africa, now naturalized throughout the Neotropics" (Wagner et al., 1999; pp. 1515).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 205)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 22)
"Occurring in rough grassland and pasture". Vouchers cited: L.M. Bingley 25 (K), R.D. Hoogland 8719 (CANB, MEL), A.N. Rodd 1822 (K, NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 12)
"Occurring in rough grassland and pasture". Voucher cited: M. Lazarides 8066 (CANB)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 310-311)
Vouchers cited: DA 8308, 11311, 11852, 12582, 2803, 3619, 3620, 4017, 7397, 8465, 8466, 9053, 11782
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 195)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 34)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
Voucher cited: Forbes 181.L (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Hughes, Guy D'Oyly (1995) (p. 8)
Voucher cited: Hughes 367 (US)
Naturalized in mixed lowland shrublands and lowland grasslands from 50-400 m.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1515)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands introduced
invasive
Gargominy, Oliver/Bouchet, Philipe/Pascal, Michel/Jaffre, Tanguy/Tourneu, Jean-Christophe (1996) (p. 380)
Assez commune en pâturages et lieux incultes.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 58)
Voucher cited: Guillaumin s.n.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R. (1977) (p. 165)
Casual adventive.
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 508)
"Coastal, behind dunes in grassy flats, also in pasture".
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 237)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168785, CHR 168812, CHR 168783
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 48)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
cultivated
Henty, E. E. (1969) (p. 50)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 57)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
cultivated
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Widely cultivated as a pasture species and planted on road margins as a soil stabilizer.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 2)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Open grassland and savanna; widely cultivated in warmer parts of China.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 329)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 192)
North Korea
North Korea
North Korea (Democratic People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South Korea
South Korea
South Korea (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. plate)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Hafliger, Ernst/Scholz, Hildemar (1980) (p. 48)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Edgar, E./Connor, H. (2000) (p. 508)
"Coastal, behind dunes in grassy flats, also in pasture".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
cultivated
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized


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This page was created on 1 SEP 2002 and was last updated on 17 APR 2009.