Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Chenopodium murale
L., Chenopodiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S. Fuentes et al.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Australian-spinach, nettle goosefoot, nettle-leaf goosefoot, nettle-leaved fat-hen, salt-green, sowbane

French: chenopode des murs

Hawaiian: ‘āheahea

Spanish: cardo russo, chual, hierba del gallinazo, quelite cenizo, quelito de coyote, quinguilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Annual herbs; stems erect or ascending, 3-10 dm long, usually many-branched, mealy pubescent especially on young parts, rarely densely so.  Leaves variable, usually rhombic-ovate, 1.5-9 cm long, 0.8-5 (-7) cm wide, mealy pubescent at least on lower surface, margins with 5-15 coarse, more or less irregular, ascending teeth on each side.  Flowers in small, dense glomerules grouped into leafy, terminal and axillary, divaricately branched cymes up to ca. 5 cm long; calyx ca. 1 mm long, not completely enclosing the fruit at maturity, papillose and with a raised keel toward apex. Seed black, not especially shiny, horizontal, 1.2-1.5 mm in diameter, acutely keeled, the surface under high magnification marked with minute rounded pits."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 538).

Habitat/ecology:  "Adapted to many ecological conditions but grows most vigorously in soils rich in nitrogen.  It grows from sea level to over 2000 m and in open and shaded sites.  When growing under favorable conditions, the plants are over 1 m tall before flowering" (Holm et al., 1997; p. 180).

In Hawai‘i, "naturalized in dry, disturbed habitats, 0-2,750 m.  In Tonga, "uncommon in disturbed places" (Whistler, 1988; p. 8). In New Caledonia, "espèce rudérale largement répandue sans être abondante; cultivée jadis etparfois employée à présent comme plante médicinale et pour éloigner la vermine du poulailler" (MacKee, 1994; p. 29).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Mediterranean region to southwestern Asia (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 538). Widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
Pickard, J. (1984) (p. 206)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Lord Howe Island
Lord Howe Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 19)
"A common weed of waste places". Vouchers cited: A.N. Rodd 1453 (K, NSW), L.A.S. Johnson & A.N. Rodd 1296 (K, NSW)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 8)
"A common weed of waste places". Vouchers cited: P.S. Green 1450 (A); P.S. Green 1495 (A); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
Skottsberg, Carl (1953) (p. 216)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Santa Clara introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santiago Group
Santiago Island introduced
invasive
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaho‘olawe Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kure Atoll introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2001) (p. 10)
Occasional near quarters, southwest end of runway, and near base of old LORAN tower.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau, Lehua Islet introduced
invasive
Wood, K. R./LeGrande, Maya (2006) (p. 22)
Vouchers cited: Lorence et al. 7127 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood et al. 11346 (BISH, PTBG, US), K.R. Wood et al. 9224 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Ni‘ihau Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 80 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Tern Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Martz, Kim (1999) (p. 6)
Common everywhere.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
Tassin, Jacques (2005)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 29)
Vouchers cited: Pancher 439, Barrau 47, Mme. Catala in Baumann 7305, MacKee 11850
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 178)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 14)
Vouchers cited: Ilolahia 139 (1958), Soakai 391, Soakai 813, Soakai 918 (1959)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island introduced
invasive
Amerson, A. Binion, Jr./Shelton, Philip C. (1976) (p. 54)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 538)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
invasive
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-6)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
South Australia, Victoria, Western Australia
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Naturalised
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 178)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 83)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 182)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 178)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 527)
"Widespread in waste places, roadsides, cultivated ground, open disturbed coastal areas, and sometimes in poor or depleted pasture".
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of)   Holm, Leroy/Doll, Jerry/Holm, Eric/Pancho, Jaun/Herberger, James (1997) (p. 178)


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This page was created on 26 JUL 2002 and was last updated on 10 MAR 2013.