Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Cheilocostus speciosus
(J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, Costaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 11 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Banksea speciosa J. Koenig; Costus sericeus Blume; Costus speciosus (J. Koenig) Sm.; Costus speciosus var. sericeus (Blume) K. Schum.

Common name(s): [more details]

Arohane: okeoke

Chinese: bi qiao jiang

English: cane-reed, crape ginger, crepe ginger, Malay ginger, spiral flag, wild ginger

Japanese: oo-hozaki-aame

Kwara‘ae: okaoka, wakawaka

Nangu: tebeangkombwapul

Palauan: isebsab

Pohnpeian: dihng, sinser weitahta, ting

Yapese: sauer, thowel, wanim

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Stems 1-3 m, bearing 2 or 3 branches , apex branched and spirally twisted. Petiole 5-7 mm; leaf blade ovate, oblong or lanceolate, 15-20 x 6-10 cm, abaxially glabrous to densely sericeous, base subrounded, apex acuminate or caudate-acuminate; leaf sheath tubular, 4-5 cm, margin hairy. Inflorescences a capital spike, terminal, ellipsoid or ovoid, 5-15 cm; bracts green tinged with bright red, ovate, ca. 2 cm, leathery, pubescent; bracteoles pale red, 1.2-1.5 cm, keeled. Calyx 1.8-2 cm, leathery, apex 3-lobed, lobes rigid and densely sericeous at apex, red after flowering.. Corolla tube shorter than calyx, lobes oblong-elliptic, ca. 5 cm, apex white or pinkish. Labellum white, trumpet-shaped, 6.5-9 cm, apex toothed and crisped, with edges overlapping. Fertile stamen petaloid, white with orange-yellow base, urceolate, ca. 4.5 x 1.3 cm, pubescent. Capsules red, globose, ca. 1.5 cm, slightly woody. Seeds black, glossy, ca. 3 mm long"  (Digital Flora of Taiwan).

"Herb, perennial, erect, robust, unbranched, to 2 m high or more, arising from a rhizome.  Leaves simple, alternate, spirally arranged, attached atop a sheath, blade oblanceolate to elliptic, 8-25 x 3-7 cm, the lower surface silky pubescent.  Flowers continuously through the year; flowers many, borne among purple bracts in a dense, ovoid to globose, terminal head 3-10 cm long.  Corolla of three fused subequal petals 4-6 cm long and a larger, cup-shaped labellum 5-9 cm long and to 10 cm wide, crepe-like, white, with a yellow anther.  Fruit an ellipsoidal many-seeded capsule"  (Whistler, 2000; p. 154).

"Tall plant with erect or spreading stems; leaves elliptic or obovate, up to 20 cm long or more, about 4-6 cm wide, pubescent beneath; shortly petiolate; inflorescence subterminal, large, to 10 cm long, with bracts about 1.5 cm long; flowers white, the calyx read, corolla white, 5-6 cm long; stamen crest yellow; capsule red; seeds black with a white fleshy aril" (Stone, 1970; p. 109).

Habitat/ecology:  "Fertile, moist soils in shaded places are preferred" (Whistler, 2000; pp. 154-155).

Propagation:  Bird-dispersed fruits and vegetatively (Staples et al, 2000; p. 20).

Native range:  Southeastern Asia; commonly cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 4)
Voucher: Flynn 6536 (PTBG)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 29706)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 40808)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. Voucher specimen)
Voucher: BMW 5771 (BISH, BRI, GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 7)
As Cheilocostus speciosus (J. Koenig) C. D. Specht
Naturalized everywhere.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2005) (p. 15)
Not common.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 106)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2908 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 40)
As Cheilocostus speciosus (J. Loenig) C. D. Specht. Vouchers cited: M.J. Balick 3808 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 3852 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4017 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4081 (NY, PTBG), M.J. Balick 4165 (NY, PTBG), F.R. Fosberg 58423 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2908 (BISH), F. Sohl 78 (NY, PTBG), C.Y.C. Wong 54 (BISH)
Invasive
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438226)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 503776)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 699904)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1997) (voucher ID: PTBG 34655)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 34577)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2000) (voucher ID: PTBG 38723)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 699903)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 191-192)
Vouchers cited: DA 11748, DA 3176, DA 16530, DA 16793, DA 11306
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34080)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 34081)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34082)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 34083)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 379)
Voucher cited: BRY 26364
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 379)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 2502 (PAP)
Ornementale commune, plus ou moins subspontanée.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 109)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R. (1995) (p. 18)
Voucher cited: K. Nagata 3849 (BISH)
Abundantly naturalized.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1381)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank L./Bartlett, R. T. (2000) (p. 4)
Vouchers cited: (West Maui) Oppenheimer & Annable H29909 (BISH), (East Maui) Oppenheimer H89932 (BISH)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Frohlich, Danielle/Lau, Alex (2008) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: D. Frohlich & A. Lau s.n. (BISH 725952)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Majuro (Mãjro) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy (2003) (p. 36)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Mili (Mile) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Vander Velde, Nancy/Vander Velde, Brian (2010) (p. A4)
Rare; single planting by private residence oceanside of Mili.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre probably native
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 142)
Voucher cited: MacKee 28157
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 192)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 23)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 41)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 9)
As Cheilocostus speciosus (J. Koenig) C. D. Specht, voucher cited: Lorence 8220 (PTBG)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 505201)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 505208)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 610708)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1967) (voucher ID: BNM 124)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (Koen.) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (2007) (voucher ID: BNM 4463)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 503824)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 505207)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island native
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. Field notes)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island native
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 9)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 505202)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Palau
Rock Islands (Chelbacheb)
Aulupse‘el (Ulebsechel) Island native
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 112)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 109)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 31)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 246)
Occasionally cultivated for ornamental purposes.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 66)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 79901)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 79565)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Santa Isabel (Bughotu) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 634303)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 60)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 72)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 52)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 66)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 29)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Forest margins, moist places in valleys, roadsides; near sea level to 1700 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan.
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 354)
As Costus speciosus (Koen.) Smith. In thin forests.
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 29)
Common
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Ching-I Peng, ed. (2013)
"Common in the central and southern Taiwan, often in thickets".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida)   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1903) (voucher ID: BISH 127395)
Taxon name on voucher: Costus speciosus (J.Konig) Sm.

Comments:  A problem elsewhere but not so far in Micronesia, where it is native (at least in some locations). A weedy species in French Polynesia. Naturalizing and potentially troublesome in American Samoa (Space & Flynn, 2000).

Control: 

Physical:  "Mechanical control by pulling is difficult but can be effective if done repeatedly for an extended period"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 17).

Chemical:  "Chemical control with triclopyr (Garlon 4) as foliar spray for young plants and stem application with undiluted Garlon 4, brushed or sprayed onto freshly cut stems, for older plants"  (Englberger, 2009; p. 17).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 10 MAR 2013.