Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Cestrum diurnum
L., Solanaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: tentanchinu, tinta‘n China, tintan China, tintán China

English: Chinese inkberry, day cestrum, day jessamine, day queen, day-blooming cestrum, inkberry

Fijian: thauthau

Hawaiian: mākāhala

Maori (Cook Islands): ariki-va‘ine, ariki-va‘ine

Spanish: dama de día, galán de día, rufiana, saúco tintóreo

Tongan: vaitohi

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Glabrous branching shrub to 2.5 m tall, leaves elliptic-oblong or oblong-ovate, obtuse, mostly 5-10 cm long and to 2.5 cm wide, medium green, not glossy, paler beneath, short-petiolate; cymes combined in racemes in axils and terminal; flowers subsessile, about 1-1.5 cm long, calyx green, 5-toothed, corolla white, with flowers subsessile, about 1-1.5 cm long, calyx green, 5-toothed, corolla white, with 5 short rounded reflexed lobes (rarely 6); stamens 5 (rarely 6), included; style filiform, stigma capitate and almost or slightly exserted; berry purple to black, ovoid, juicy (purplish), few-seeded, with the calyx persistent at base"  (Stone, 1970; p. 516).

Habitat/ecology:  "Day jasmine grows in gardens, roadsides, fencerows, pastures, vacant lots, and abandoned farmland in Puerto Rico (Liogier 1995). The species is particularly associated with pasture fencerows because its seeds are deposited there by birds, vegetative competition is controlled by grazing, and day jasmine is rarely eaten by cattle. There is no mention in the literature of the types of natural forest stands where day jasmine grows within its native range. However, because the species is intolerant of heavy shade and quickly disappears when overtopped by forest, it can be inferred that day jasmine is an opportunist that invades disturbed areas and quickly completes its life cycle ahead of encroaching forest. The species may grow as individual plants or in thickets. Day jasmine will grow in areas receiving from about 800 to 3000 mm of precipitation, but most aggressively colonizes areas that receive from about 1400 to 2400 mm of precipitation. It tolerates soils of all textures, apparently from all parent materials, but is most common in limestone areas (Florida Exotic Plants Council 2001). Day jasmine does not prosper on exposed subsoil nor grow on swampy ground. The plant is salt tolerant if not exposed to heavy salt spray or overwash from storms (Florida Exotic Plants Council 2001)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

Moist and wet forests and open areas. Common in Guam on mixed or limestone soils.  In Tonga, "cultivated and an occasional escape" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 240).  In Hawai‘i, cultivated and naturalized"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1254).

Propagation:  Seed, dispersed by birds.

Native range:  West Indies  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1254).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1945) (p. 62)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 9277 (BISH)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1939) (voucher ID: BISH 181631)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 181636)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1974) (voucher ID: BISH 418132)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 102)
"Forest edges"
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 7)
Voucher: Flynn 7024 (PTBG, BISH, US)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2002) (voucher ID: PTBG 357)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 181551)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1991) (pp. 35-36)
Voucher cited: DA 16446, H.B.R. Parham 306
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 33916)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 271)
Voucher cited: Moore 319
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 271)
Vouchers cited: Setchell & Parks 481, Florence 4500, Florenece 4587, BRY 26327
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Vouchers cited: J. Florence 4500 (PAP), J. Florence 4587 (PAP), J. Florence 5492 (PAP)
Ornementale peu commune.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 554443)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 558026)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Manihi Atoll introduced
Sachet, M-H. (1983) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: Brooks & Brooks 41 (BISH)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 516)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3777 (GUAM), Stone 4508 (GUAM), Stone 4986 (GUAM)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 244)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 95)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 181612)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1916) (voucher ID: BISH 181614)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1911) (voucher ID: BISH 181615)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 181616)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1964) (voucher ID: BISH 181621)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 402068)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 402078)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 567799)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 649485)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 660838)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 1000179)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1966) (voucher ID: PTBG 22754)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1965) (voucher ID: PTBG 22755)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1254)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1254)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 1254)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1906) (voucher ID: BISH 181632)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1931) (voucher ID: BISH 181635)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1921) (voucher ID: BISH 181633)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1929) (voucher ID: BISH 181634)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1979) (voucher ID: BISH 428330)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1985) (voucher ID: BISH 608929)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 240)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15710
Occasional escape.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 181628)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 71)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 29677)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 41309)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1959) (voucher ID: BISH 699003)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 10)
Vouchers: Flynn 6859 (PTBG), Flynn 6863 (PTBG)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 240)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16138
Occasional escape.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 181629)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 258)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2001) (voucher ID: PTBG 260)
Taxon name on voucher: Cestrum diurnum
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 25)
Cultivated only
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Texas
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)

Comments:  Invasive on Mangaia, Cook Islands (Space & Flynn, 2002).

Initially became widespread on Guam, but now more of a localized problem, possibly indicating local limiting factors (Margie Falanruw, pers. com.).

Planting of this species is prohibited in Miami-Dade County, Florida (U.S.) (Hunsberger, 2001).

Control: 

Physical:  "Seedlings and saplings can be hand pulled or dug out".

Chemical:  "Larger plants are cut and the cut stumps treated with herbicide.  Effective herbicides are picloram, triclopyr plus imazapyr, or 2,4-D plus picloram.  Triclopyr can be used as a basal stem treatment"  (Weber, 2003; p. 99).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 4 JUL 2012.