Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cereus hildmannianus subsp. uruguayanus
(R. Kiesling) N. P. Taylor, Cactaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk; score: 10 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Cereus uruguayanus)

Other Latin names:  Cereus uruguayanus

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Peruvian apple, hedge cactus, spiny tree cactus

Habit:  cactus

Description:  [Description for Cereus uruguayanus [synonym]:] "Plants arborescent, up to 6 m tall, branched; stems cylindrical, 10-20 cm in diameter, ribs 6-9, rarely fewer.  Areoles gray or brown, spines 6-8 per areole, brown or black, 1-4 cm long.  Flowers nocturnal, 12-15 cm long, 8-10 cm in diameter; sepaloid perianth parts green or slightly pinkish, narrowly oblong to narrowly lanceolate, 4-5 cm long, 0.9-1.2 cm wide, inner perianth parts white, oblanceolate, 4.5-7.5 cm long, 1-2 cm wide; staminal filaments greenish; style green, 7.5-10 cm long; stigma lobes 12-15, green, ca. 1 cm long.  Berries reddish or yellowish orange, 5-7.5 cm long, 4.5-5 cm in diameter, smooth or with a few scales, splitting along 1 side and exposing a sweet while pulp." (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 417)
[Description for Cereus hildmannianus K. Schum. used per Vanessa Coronel] "Plants treelike with numerous branches, to 10 m (33 ft) high with distinct trunks.  Stems cylindrical, segmented, blue-green to dull green, often glaucous when young, to 15 cm (5.9) in diameter.  Ribs 4-6, acute, to 3.5 cm (1.4 in) high.  Areoles brown.  Spines usually absent.  Flowers very large, white, 25-30 cm (9.8-12 in) long.  Fruits globose, red with white pulp." (Anderson, 2001; p. 144-145)

"Treelike cactus 25-40' tall; trunk short, wood; stems blue-green when mature (pale green when young), 4-8" ⌀, usu 6-9 ribbed; spines brown or black, 6-8 per areole. Flws 4.75-6" long, limb 3.25-4" ⌀, ourter tep reddish or brownish, inner tep white,; stam fil greenish; style green, 3-4" long, stigma lobes 12-15. Frt red or yellowish orange, 2-3" long, 1.6-2" ⌀, pulp white, sweet." (A Tropical Garden Flora, p. 211)

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology information known by PIER)

Propagation:  seed & stem cuttings (A Tropical Garden Flora, p. 211)

Native range:  Southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 417). Uruguay, naturalized elsewhere (GRIN). "Very uncertain, probably Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina" (Anderson, 2001; p. 144-145).

Impacts and invaded habitats:  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized on southern Kaua‘i" (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 417).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. 1 and var. monstrosus
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Var. monstrosus
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. 1
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
var. 1 and var. monstrosus
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J. (2004) (p. 91)
As Cereus peruvianus
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
As Cereus peruvianus (C. Linnaeus) P. Miller
Cultivée
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 417)
Voucher cited: Au s.n. (BISH)
Naturalized
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
Oppenheimer, Hank (2008) (p. 25)
East Maui. Voucher cited: Oppenheimer & D. Crow H70702 (BISH, PTBG)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
Lau, Alex/Frohlich, Danielle (2013) (p. 6)
Voucheer cited: A. Lau & Frohlich 2012031201 (BISH)

Comments:  present in Hawaii per Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems in Hawaii, p. 133

Reported [as Cereus uruguayanus] as possibly an invasive plant in the Hawaiian Islands per Staples et al., 2000. Reported [as Cereus peruvianus] as possibly an invasive plant in the Galápagos Islands per Charles Darwin Research Station.

Control:  (control info not known by PIER)


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This page was created on 1 JUN 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.