Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cenchrus elegans
(Hassk.) Veldkamp, Poaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk; score: 7 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Cenchrus elegans)

Other Latin names:  Cenchrus caninus Morrone; Gymnotrix macrostachys Brongn.; Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.) Trin.; Saccharum caninum Reinw. ex Blume; Sericura elegans Hassk.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: Pacific fountain grass, Pacific fountaingrass

Habit:  grass

Description:  "Perennials. Culms erect to geniculate at base, not rooting in the decumbent nodes, not stoloniferous, rhizomatous, 13 m long, solid, nodes glabrous. Ligule a ciliolate rim, c. 0.15 mm long. Blades flat, 1065 cm by (6)835 mm, margins scaberulous. Peduncle puberulous below the panicle. Panicle exserted, many-spikeled, 1540 cm long, common axis puberulous. Involucre stipitate, disarticulating at base. Bristles many, rather stiff, scaberulous, unequal, longest ones 32 55 mm long. Spikelets 1 within the involucre, pedicelled, 4.56.5 mm long. Lower glume 1.251.75 mm long, 0.390.53 times as long as the upper glume; upper glume 2.53.4 mm long, 1-nerved. First lemma epaleate, acuminate, membranous, 35-nerved, glabrous, nerves smooth; second lemma membranous. Anthers 1.652.1 mm long, apex glabrous. 2n = ?" (Veldkamp, 2014, p. 68)

Habitat/ecology:  "Habitat--Sunny, infertile soil, slopes, along hollow roads, Imperata fields, gravel beds, savannahs, 02130 m altitude." (Veldkamp, 2014, p. 68)

Propagation:  (no propagation information known by PIER)

Native range:  Indonesia, Philippines, Papua New Guinea (GRIN)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Parker, J. L./Parsons, B. (2016) (pp. 20-21)
first naturalized record on this island based on material collected 01 August 2011; online document accessed 20171220
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea)
New Guinea Island
New Guinea Island   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171219
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171219
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171219
Indonesia
Indonesia
Java   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521; "Jawa"
Indonesia
Indonesia
Lesser Sunda Islands   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Malaysia/Indonesia
Borneo
Borneo   Global Biodiversity Information Facility (2018)
accessed 20180521
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States of America
United States
United States introduced
cultivated
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171219

Comments:  Cultivated in the United States (GRIN)

"Distribution [PIER ed.: not sure whether 'native range' is implied]--Widespread in W Malesia into the Pacific (Solomon Isl.), but not in the Malay Peninsula (once cultivated in Penang and Singapore) nor in Australia." (Veldkamp, 2014, p. 68)

On the Big Island of Hawaii, "[a] form with uniformly reddish purple stems, leaves, and panicles occurs between 15002100 m altitudes. this might be the same as what is known as the cv. Burgundy Giant of horticulturists (Veldkamp 2014)." (HBS Records, p. 20)

Control:  No species-specific control methods are known by PIER for this taxon; however--among many others--Motooka et al., 2003 (glyphosate) and Laca-Buendia and Pires, 1992 (Clethodim) provide information about control of similar species (others in the genus Cenchrus).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.