Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Celtis sinensis
Persoon, Cannabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  no

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Celtis japonica Planch.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: po shu

English: Chinese elm, Chinese hackberry, Chinese nettletree, Japanese hackberry

Japanese: enoki

Habit:  tree

Description:  "A large deciduous tree to 20 m; bark smooth, gray.  Leaves chartaceous, ovate to ovate-oblong, obtuse to acute, obliquely broad-cuneate at base, entire to crenate-serrate toward the base, dark green and smooth above, glabrous and slightly glaucous beneath, 3-nerved at base, the lateral veins 3-4 per side; petioles about 1 cm long.  Flowers solitary, axillary on young branchlets, the pedicels about 3 mm long, perianth parts glabrous, ciliate along the margins.  Fruit solitary, ovoid, 7-9 mm long, 4-5 mm thick, dark orange, becoming black when mature; pedicels about 1 cm long" (Li et al., 1976; pp. 109, 111).

Habitat/ecology:  "Appears to favour clay soils associated with alluvial creek-flats and gullies, especially riparian habitats and other open areas where the original forest has been cleared or disturbed".  The plant has naturalised throughout most of south-east Queensland, where it has formed dense infestations along creek-banks.  At some locations near Ipswich (30 km west of Brisbane) it appears to be preventing regeneration of riparian vegetation." (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 149).

In Taiwan, "in thickets at low altitudes" (Li et al., 1976; pp. 109, 111).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  South China and Taiwan to Korea and Japan (Li et al., 1976; pp. 109, 111).

Presence:

Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 149)
Widely cultivated as a garden plant/shade tree/street tree.
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Australian Biological Resources Study (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, slopes; 100-1500 m".
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 58)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, slopes; 100-1500 m".
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
District of Colombia
Naturalized

Control: 

Physical:  Hand pull or dig out seedlings and young trees.

Chemical:  Cut larger trees and treat the stumps with herbicide (Weber, 2003; p. 93).


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 23 MAR 2005 and was last updated on 16 JAN 2011.