Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Caryota mitis
Loureiro, Arecaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 1 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Caryota griffithii Becc.; Caryota sobolifera Wall. ex Mart.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chinese: duan sui yu wei kui

English: Burmese fishtail palm, clumping fishtail palm, clustered fishtail palm, clustering fishtail palm, fish tail palm, lesser fish tail palm, tufted fishtail palm, winepalm

French: caryote doux

Habit:  tree

Description: 

Genus: "Solitary or cespitose, dwarf to large, hepaxanthic, monoecious palms; leaf blades bipinnate, the pinnules cuneate, toothed on the truncate apex; inflorescences solitary at nodes, with prophyll and several tubular peduncular bracts; flowers in triads of 2 staminate and a pistillate, at least basally on rachillae; staminate flowers with 3 imbricate sepals, 3 valvate petals, and (6-) 9-100 or more stamens; pistillate flowers with 3 imbricate sepals, 3 petals connate in basal third and valvate above, minute (or absent) staminodes, and trilocular ovary with 1 or 2 locules fertile; fruit red to blackish, 1- or 2-seeded; seeds with ruminate endosperm."

Species: "Stems cespitose, to 13 m high and 12.5 cm in diameter; leaves to about 3 m long; inflorescence short, with rachillae about 30 cm long; staminate flowers with about 17 stamens; fruit blackish, about 12 mm in diameter" (Smith, 1979; p. 408).

"A multi-stemmed palm tree with crowded trunks of greatly mixed height, forming a clump usually less than 1.5 m across at the base.  Trunks grow to about 10 m (usually much less) and are 5-15 cm in diameter, with well-spaced rings.  Leaves bipinnate with the crowns having few leaves but collectively appearing dense.  The ascending leaves have long midribs and are about 2-4 m long.  The spreading leaflets are broadly to narrowly triangular, very asymmetrical.  Inflorescences are 25-50 cm long with crowded pale cream flowers.  Fruits are yellowish-green turning orange, dark red to almost black, 7-15 mm in diameter, 1-seeded."   (Smith, 2002; p.17).

Habitat/ecology:  "Commonly cultivated in tropical areas from where it appears to be spreading into rainforests, vine thickets and drainage lines" (Smith, 2002; p. 17).

Propagation:  "Produces a prolific number of viable seeds that germinate around the parent plant.  Seeds also spread when ingested and expelled by birds and animals.  Also spread as ornamental plantings."  (Smith, 2002; p. 17).

Native range:  India, Indonesia, Philippines, naturalized elsewhere (GRIN). Burma and Malaysia (Bodkin, 1986 cited in Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 98). "Burma to southeastern Asia and Indonesia; cultivated elsewhere" (Smith, 1979; p. 408).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 35)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 408)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 408)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Daehler, Curtis C./Baker, Raymond F. (2006) (p. 5)
Voucher cited: C. Daehler 1202 (BISH)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A./Steele, O. (1999) (p. 104)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 110)
Voucher cited: MacKee 21266
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Lorence, David H./Flynn, Tim (2010) (p. 7)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
cultivated
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 159)
In forests near streams at low altitudes; cultivated for ornamental purposes.
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 28)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Nicholas M. (2002) (p. 17)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 98)
Potential weed species.
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Lowland rain forests, secondary forests, disturbed areas, and often cultivated; below 1000 m. Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 294)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (p. 408)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 98)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 24)
Common


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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 10 FEB 2013.