Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Carthamus lanatus
L., Asteraceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Carthamus baeticus (Boiss. & Reut.) Nyman; Carthamus creticus L.; Carthamus lanatus subsp. baeticus (Boiss. & Reut.) Maire; Carthamus turkestanicus Popov; Kentrophyllum baeticum Boiss. & Reut.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: distaff thistle, downy safflower, saffron thistle, smooth distaff thistle, woolly distaff thistle, woolly safflower, woolly star thistle, woolly thistle, yellow star thistle

Spanish: cardilla

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Plants 40-180 cm, herbage ± densely glandular, loosely cobwebby to ± woolly. Stems rigidly erect, openly branched distally, stramineous. Leaves basal and cauline; basal often absent at anthesis, petioles winged, blades 10-15 cm, margins pinnately 1-2-divided into linear or lanceolate spine-tipped lobes; cauline spreading or recurved, lanceolate to ovate, rigid, clasping, 3-7-veined from base, margins with narrow spine-tipped lobes, spinose-acuminate. Involucres ovoid, body 25-35 mm, usually ± tomentose. Outer phyllaries ascending or ± spreading, 35-50 mm, usually not more than 1.5 times as long as inner, terminal appendages spreading to ascending, linear-lanceolate, spiny lobed, prominently spine-tipped. Corollas yellow, sometimes red- or black-veined, 25-35 mm, throats gradually expanded; anthers yellow; pollen yellow. Cypselae brown, 4-6 mm, the outer roughened; pappus scales 1-13 mm"  (Flora of North America online).

Description from Flora of New Zealand.

Habitat/ecology:  In North America, "Roadsides, grain fields, pastures; 0-1100 m.  A viciously spiny noxious weed, sometimes forming nearly impenetrable stands. In rangelands it is known to injure the eyes and mouths of livestock, and it tends to spread when more palatable plants are consumed"  (Flora of North America online).  In New Zealand, "pasture, roadsides, waste land, arable land, river flats, fowl runs, railway ballast"  (Webb et al., 1988; p. 302).  In Australia, "weed in pasture and woodland, mostly growing in cultivated crops"  (NSW PlantNET).  "In Chile this species grows in the following environmental conditions:  Medium altitude up to the timber line; low altitude, interior valleys. Dry, arid areas, with long drought periods of 6-10 months, precipitations of 100 mm-300 mm. are concentrated in winter. Fully exposed to the sun, level areas or slopes facing north  (Chileflora).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  Europe, Egypt, Turkey; widely naturalized (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más Afuera (Alejandro Selkirk Island) introduced
invasive
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (p. 552)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
National Herbarium of New South Wales (2013)
Canada (British Colombia)
Province of British Columbia
Canada (British Columbia) introduced
U.S. Dept. Agr., Nat. Res. Cons. Serv. (2013)
Chile (continental)
Chile
Chile (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Belov, Michail (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 189)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Webb, C. J./Sykes, W. R./Garnock-Jones, P. J. (1988) (p. 302)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (Oregon) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
United States (west coast)
United States (west coast states)
USA (California) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (2013)
Ariz., Mass., N.J., Okla., Tex.

Control: 

Biological:  "Because of the close relationship between the cultivated safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) and its weedy relatives, biocontrol has not been an option for controlling weedy species such as C. lanatus"  (Flora of North America online).


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This page was created on 8 FEB 2011 and was last updated on 3 APR 2011.