Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Canna indica
L., Cannaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk, score: 17 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Canna cinea Mill.; Canna edulis Ker Gawl.; Canna limbata Roscoe; Canna lutea Mill.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: mongos halum-tano

Chinese: mei ren jiao

Chuukese: apeellap, oruuru, yapellap, yoruuru

English: African arrowroot, arrowroot, canna, edible canna, Indian shot, purple arrowroot, Queensland arrowroot, red canna, Sierra Leone arrowroot, wild canna

Fijian: gasau ni ga, ngasau ni nga

French: balisier comestible, tous-les-mois

Hawaiian: ali‘ipoe, li‘ipoe, poloka

I-Kiribati: te riti

Japanese: dandoku

Mangarevan: corona

Maori (Cook Islands): nūāenga, nuāēnga, pia renga, tiare papa‘ā

Marshallese: an

Pohnpeian: iouiou, iouiou en wai, iuoiuo en wai, yuyu-n-wai

Samoan: fagamanu, fagamanu, fanamanu, fanamanu

Spanish: achira, caña comestible, gruya, platanillo, yuquilla

Tahitian: pia-raroto‘a, pio pio, re‘a pua‘aniho

Tongan: fa‘akole, fanamanu, misimisi

Wallisian: fagafaga, fanafana, fanamanu

Yapese: aruru, bucolnisepan

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Rhizome developed, much branched. Stems stout, to 2.5 m. Leaf sheath green or purple; petiole short; leaf blade adaxially green, abaxially and at margin green or purple, ovate-oblong to oblong, 30-60 x 10-20 cm. Inflorescence a raceme of cincinni. Bracts light purple, ovate, ca. 8 mm. Flowers 1 or 2 per cincinnus. Sepals pale purplish green, lanceolate, ca. 1.5 cm. Corolla tube apricot yellow, ca. 1.5 cm; lobes erect, red to apricot yellow with purplish apex, lanceolate, ca. 4 cm. Staminodes 2 (or 3), erect, red with apricot yellow base, oblanceolate, 4-5.5 cm x 7-10 mm, 1 with apex emarginate; labellum red, sometimes with yellow spots, lanceolate, ca. 4.5 cm, margin revolute, apex emarginate; fertile stamen with filament reddish apricot yellow, lanceolate, ca. 4.2 cm; anther ca. 9 mm. Ovary green, globose, ca. 6 mm in diameter, warty. Style red to apricot yellow, narrow, ca. 6 cm, base adnate to staminode column. Capsule broadly ovoid, 1.2-1.8 cm"  (Flora of China online).

"Herbaceous, not usually over 5 ft high; leaves rather fleshy, with thin margins, usually not more than 1 ft. long and half as broad, lanceolate to sub-orbicular, veins arching-parallel.  Flowers red, yellow or variegated, showy, the staminodia black, capsular, nearly globose, enclosing a variable number of round, shiny black seeds"  (Stone, 1970; p. 112).

Habitat/ecology:  Grows in thickets, crowding out other plants.  In Hawai‘i, "naturalized primarily in disturbed mesic to wet forest, 10-610 m"  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 1375).  In Fiji, "this distinctive plant is naturalized and often frequent around villages, along roadsides, in coconut plantations, in clearings, and in forest near streams, at elevations from near sea level to 450 m"  (Smith, 1979; pp. 216-217). In Tonga, "common in low moist areas" (Yuncker, 1959; p. 86).

Propagation:  Seed (bird-dispersed) and rhizomes

Native range:  "West Indies, Central and South America; widely naturalised in other warm countries" (Healy and Edgar,1980; p. 44).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 39)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Voucher cited: Whistler 3484
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 42)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 44)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1990)
Vouchers cited: Garber 781, Yuncker 9282, Whistler 1389, Whistler 3328
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1991) (voucher ID: PTBG 10464)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
Setchell, William Albert (1924) (p. 104)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1975) (voucher ID: BISH 430369)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
Orchard, Anthony E., ed. (1994) (p. 11)
"Naturalised beside tracks etc." Vouchers cited: W.R. Sykes NI 54(CHR); G. Uhe 1194 (K); R.O. Gardner 6000 (AK); 1902, J.H. Maiden & J.L. Boorman (NSW)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Atkinson, Rachel/Sawyer, John (2011)
Chile (offshore islands)
Juan Fernández Islands
Isla Más a Tierra (Robinson Crusoe Island) introduced
invasive
cultivated
Danton, Philippe/Perrier, Christophe/Martinez Reyes, Guido (2006) (pp. 477, 523, 552)
"En RC, es cultivada en el pueblo de San Juan Bautista, en jumerosos jardines del pueblo y se encuentran algunas matas que se escaparon alrededor de los esteros en el pueblo y hasta el sector de la Plazoleta del Yunque".
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Aitutaki Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 81993)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Mangaia Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. Field notes.)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1982) (voucher ID: BISH 596093)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1990) (voucher ID: BISH 664891)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1947) (voucher ID: BISH 109625)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Fefan Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 31)
Cultivated and naturalized.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Namonuito (Namonweito, Nómwun Wiité) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Parem (Param) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Puluwat (Pwonowót) Atoll introduced
cultivated
Manner, H. I./Mallon, E. (1989) (p. 42)
Voucher cited: Manner & Mallon 128 (GUAM), Manner & Mallon 129 (GUAM), Manner & Mallon 130 (GUAM)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Tol Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 31)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 31)
Cultivated and naturalized.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 503989)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Waguk, Erick E. (2000) (p. 30)
Also ornamental hybrids
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 7)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 107)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2571 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 39)
Vouchers cited: E. Albert 69 (NY), F. R. Fosberg 58483 (BISH), S.F. Glassman 2571 (BISH), P. Raynor 161 (NY, PTBG)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 109622)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 503992)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2003) (voucher ID: PTBG 43878)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Faraulep (Faraulap) Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 503990)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Also ornamental hybrids
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 109624)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1980) (voucher ID: BISH 503991)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1968) (voucher ID: BNM 91)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Smith 301
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1933) (voucher ID: BISH 109616)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lakemba Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Garnock-Jones 886
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mothe Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Bryan 476
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Mothe Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1924) (voucher ID: BISH 109618)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ngau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Milne 148
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Smith 7497
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Ovalau Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109617)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Taveuni Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: Seeman 625
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Vouchers cited: DA 16872, DA 16873
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34076)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34077)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699237)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 699238)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Voucher cited: DA 10222
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 34075)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Mbalavu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 699239)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1979) (pp. 216-217)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 149, DA 11357, H.B.R. Parham 192, Gillespie 2813, DA 16942, DA 11205
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34074)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 34078)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1958) (voucher ID: BISH 34079)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1927) (voucher ID: BISH 109615)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Aukena Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 12)
Vouchers cited: Agassiz 95 (GH), Fosberg 11010 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000631)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1988) (voucher ID: BISH 1000632)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Tahuata (Tuhuata) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Huka (Huahuna, Uahuka) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2004) (voucher ID: PTBG 42253)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Ua Pou (Huapu, Uapou, Uapu) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Maupiti (Maurua) Island introduced
cultivated
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, M.-H. (1987) (p. 24)
Vouchers cited: Raynal 17830, Fosberg 64833 (US)
Persisting from cultivation.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 4951 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 699236)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 310-311)
Voucher cited: Moore 16
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (pp. 310-311)
Voucher cited: Setchell & Parks 239
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 5752 (PAP), J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11220 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 552849)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643962)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Raivavae (Raevavae) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643963)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rapa Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6538 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rimatara (Rimitara) Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6133 (PAP)
Naturalisée
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Naturalisée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 112)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1916) (voucher ID: BISH 109626)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1918) (voucher ID: BISH 109627)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1375-1376)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1375-1376)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1375-1376)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1375-1376)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1375-1376)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (pp. 1375-1376)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Butaritari Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 77)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Kiribati
Tungaru (Gilbert) Islands
Tarawa Atoll introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Imada, Clyde T. (2004) (p. 73)
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Jaluit (Jãlwõj) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. Raymond (1990) (p. 34)
Also Canna indica L. var. orientalis
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Kwajalein (Kuwajleen) Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Marshall Islands
Ratak Chain
Arno Atoll   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 109621)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 48)
Voucher cited: Hassall 189 (SUVA)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Deplanche s.n., Vieillard 537, Baumann 6797, MacKee 40479
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Kermadec Islands introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 44)
New Zealand (offshore islands)
Kermadec Islands
Raoul Island introduced
invasive
Sykes, W. R./West, C. J. (1996) (p. 451)
Adventive
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 224)
Reported present in cultivation by Sykes, not seen by Space & Flynn. Vouchers cited: CHR 169970, CHR 169965, CHR 169964, CHR 169963
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 40)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 40)
Canna sp.
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 95)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Tobi Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 1001383)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Angaur (Ngeaur) Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. Field notes.)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 53)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 114)
Also ornamental hybrids
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1974) (voucher ID: BNM 10047)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island introduced
cultivated
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 94)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 111)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (pp. 247-248)
In the settled areas, occurring in waste places in and near settlements.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 1)
Along sandy seashores, extending inland in open sandy valleys along streams, in places growing at altitudes as high as 800 m; usually gregarious.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2000) (p. 103)
"Secondary forest gaps".
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 29)
Voucher cited: St. John 14985
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 10815 (PAP)
Ornementale assez banale, naturalisée.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 662246)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1906) (voucher ID: BISH 440254)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 402108)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 55)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Ha‘ano Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 71)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka and Foa Islands introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 71)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 86)
"Common in low moist areas throughout Tonga"
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 59)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15472
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109603)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 51)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 83)
Voucher cited: Soakai 789
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15060
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109602)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1989) (voucher ID: PTBG 3911)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuatoputapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1976) (voucher ID: BISH 456105)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2001) (p. 65)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 83)
Vouchers cited: Crosby 251, Soakai 822
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 86)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 16159
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Burkill, I. H. (1900) (p. 56)
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 109604)
Taxon name on voucher: Canna indica L.
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Tuvalu Islands   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Swarbrick, John T. (1997) (p. 89)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island introduced
cultivated
Morat, Ph./Veillon, J.-M. (1985)
Morat & Veillon, 1985, cited in Meyer, 2007
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis (‘Uvea) Island introduced
cultivated
Meyer, Jean-Yves (2007) (p. 25)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Wallis and Futuna Islands   Whistler, W. A. (1988) (p. 40)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
New South Wales introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
Queensland Herbarium (2002) (p. 2)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Central America
Central America (Pacific rim)
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Cultivated. Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang.
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (pp. 354-355)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country)   Holm, Leroy/Pancho, Juan V./Herberger, James P./Plucknett, Donald L. (1979) (p. 62)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
Mito, Toshikazu/Uesugi, Tetsuro (2004) (p. 191)
var. flava Roxb. and var. rubura Aiton
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand (country) introduced
invasive
Healy, A. J./Edgar, E. (1980) (p. 44)
Voucher cited: A.J. Healy (CHR58041)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Naturalised
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
South America (Pacific rim)
South America (Pacific rim)
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 107)
Naturalized
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
invasive
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Cette herbacée envahit principalement les milieux anthropisés ou perturbés.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Comité français de l'Union Internationale pour la Conservation de la Nature en France (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 116)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Louisiana, South Carolina, Texas
Naturalized
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
USA (Florida) introduced
invasive
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Naturalized

Comments:  Also cultivated hybrids.

A weed species in New Zealand.

Although observed mainly in cultivation, this plant has the potential to be invasive and difficult to remove due to its spread by rhizomes.

Control:  Fragments remaining in soil will resprout so followup control by digging or spraying is required. Plant the site with local native plants to shade out seedlings.

Physical:  Dig out scattered plants (all year round). remove all roots and rhizomes and dispose of at a refuse transfer station.

Chemical:  1. Cut stems and paint: metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (1g) + glyphosate (50ml) + penetrant/1L water, or a 3-5mm layer of Vigilant gel. Mulch the leaves and dispose of seeds at a refuse transfer station.
2. Overall spray (spring-summer): metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (2g) + glyphosate (100ml) + penetrant/10L water"  (Weedbusters New Zealand).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 5 NOV 2011.