Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Calopogonium mucunoides
Desv., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results: 

Reject, score: 10 (Go to the risk assessment (Australia))
Low risk (based on second screen), score: 6 (Go to the risk assessment (Pacific))

Other Latin names:  Calopogonium brachycarpum (Benth.) Benth. ex Hemsl.; Calopogonium orthocarpum Urb.; Stenolobium brachycarpum Benth.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: akankan-guakag

Chinese: mao man dou

English: calopo, calopogonium, wild ground nut

Palauan: kldlelel

Pohnpeian: kalopo

Spanish: frisolilla, rabo de iguana

Tongan: fuekala

Yapese: lagathulip nuop

Habit:  vine

Description:  "A vigorous, creeping, twining or trailing herb, up to several m long, forming a tangled mass of foliage 30-50 cm deep, with densely pilose stems with long spreading ferruginous hairs.  Leaves trifoliolate, petiole up to 16 cm long, pilose; leaflets elliptical, ovate or rhomboid-ovate, (1.5-) 4-10 (-15) cm x (1-) 2-5 (-9) cm, the laterals oblique, adpressed pilose or pubescent on both surfaces.  Inflorescence a slender raceme, up to 20 cm long, peduncle 0-17 cm long, ferruginous p0ilose; flowers in fascicles of 2-6, blue or purple; calyx campanulate, unequally 5-lobed; corolla with emarginate standard, about 1 cm long.  Pod linear-oblongoid, 2-4 cm x 3.5-5 mm, straight or curved, softly pilose with coarse reddish-brown hairs, impressed between the seeds, 3-8 seeded.  Seed compressed squarish, 2-3 mm long, yellowish or reddish-brown"  (Hanum &Van der Maesen, 1997; p. 84).

Habitat/ecology:  "Calopo is grown from sea level to 2000 m altitude, but is best adapted to altitudes 300-1500 m.  It is well suited to the hot humid tropics with an annual rainfall exceeding 1250 mm but not tolerant of frost.  It is moderately drought-tolerant but may die out if the dry season is prolonged.  Vigorous growth occurs on soils of all textures, even those with a low pH range of 4.5-5.  Its self-seeding nature and twining growth habit make calopo well adapted to a range of ecological conditions.  Calopo is poorly adapted to shade, showing a marked decline in top growth, root growth and nodulation with decreasing light intensities"  (Hanum &Van der Maesen, 1997; p. 85).

Forms dense mats that smother native vegetation. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 146). "Disturbed areas in heavier soils such as roadsides, waste areas, along creek lines and edges of monsoon vine thickets. An extremely vigorous climber that smothers supporting vegetation and is relatively shade tolerant. A serious weed of peanut crops in Queensland." (Smith, 2002; p. 45).

Propagation:  "Dispersed by seed as a contaminant in hay or in mud adhering to vehicles and stock. Seed is expelled short distances from the pods which twist upon drying." (Smith, 2002; p. 45).

Native range:  Tropical America; widely cultivated and naturalized in the tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ofu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 39)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 33)
Voucher: Flynn 6563 (PTBG)
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1999) (voucher ID: PTBG 301)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1992) (voucher ID: PTBG 44557)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Pagan Island introduced
Raulerson, L. (2006) (p. 36)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 153307)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Saipan Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153309)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Sarigan Island introduced
invasive
Fosberg, F. R./Falanruw, M. V. C./Sachet, M.-H. (1975) (p. 26)
Vouchers cited: Falanruw 1760? (US), Evans 2350 (US, BISH, Fo, NY)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153304)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 79)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 664486)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666385)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 91)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Miti‘aro Island   McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Sykes, Bill (year unknown)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Rarotonga Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1991) (voucher ID: BISH 666387)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Weno (Moen) Island introduced
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Denslow, Julie S./Nelson, Duane/Mazawa, Thomas R. (2000) (p. 25)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
invasive
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 89)
Voucher cited: E.Y. Hosaka 3550 (BISH)
Naturalized
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153312)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Tomil Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153314)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1948) (voucher ID: BISH 153305)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 225)
Voucher cited: DA L.15606
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (p. 225)
Vouchers cited: DA 14358 (FDA 16027), DA 12310, DA 9513, DA 2596
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1941) (voucher ID: BISH 14435)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 32865)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1961) (voucher ID: BISH 34244)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Moorea Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11438 (PAP)
Adventice
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1992) (voucher ID: BISH 643570)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island introduced
invasive
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence & W.R. Sykes 11129
Adventice
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 324)
Vouchers cited: Stone 3911 (GUAM), Stone 4726 (GUAM)
Naturalized
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1953) (voucher ID: BISH 153306)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1949) (voucher ID: BISH 153308)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 153311)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 571823)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1965) (voucher ID: BISH 661313)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Vouchers cited: Shigenaga 708 (BISH 591253), Shigenaga 709 (BISH 591254), Herbst 9306 (BISH 596381)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
Imada, Clyde T./Staples, George W./Herbst, Derral R. (2013) (p. Voucher specimens)
Voucher cited: Rock 2517 (BISH 23572)
Japan (offshore islands)
Ogasawara (Bonin) Islands
Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands introduced
Kato, Hidetoshi (2007)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
invasive
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (pp. 138-139)
Vouchers cited: Fosberg 58651 (US), Hassall 153 (SUVA)
Naturalized but rare.
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 438355)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (p. 81)
Vouchers cited: Blanchon 797, MacKee 21945, MacKee 27609
Spontané
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 145)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150511, CHR 150509
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2000) (p. 22)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 84)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 20)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 153313)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1983) (voucher ID: BISH 507011)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1946) (voucher ID: BISH 571811)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3146)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1996) (voucher ID: BNM 26375)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3139)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1981) (voucher ID: BNM 3080)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1987) (voucher ID: PTBG 22487)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1950) (voucher ID: BISH 153310)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1981) (voucher ID: BISH 661314)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Malakal (Ngemelachel) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1978) (voucher ID: BISH 503127)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Ngerkebesang Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara/Miles, Joel E./Tiobech, Joseph/Rengulbai, Kashgar (2003) (p. 79)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
invasive
cultivated
Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 253)
Introduced to suppress weeds in coconut plantations. Now naturalized.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 146)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 63)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 69)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Flynn, Tim (2002) (p. 65)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands native
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 54)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1969) (voucher ID: BISH 697300)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 146)
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland introduced
invasive
cultivated
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 146)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Cultivated. S. Guangdong, S. Guangxi, Hainan".
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 146)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 63)
Indonesia
Indonesia
West Papua Province (Indonesia) (western New Guinea Island) (formerly Irian Jaya) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
invasive
Csurhes, S./Edwards, R. (1998) (p. 146)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 63)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of)   Waterhouse, D. F. (1993) (p. 63)
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) introduced
invasive
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 23)
Naturalised
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
cultivated
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 107)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island introduced
invasive
Whistler, W. Arthur (1996) (p. 27)
British Indian Ocean Territory
Chagos Archipelago
Diego Garcia Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1995) (voucher ID: PTBG 37909)
Taxon name on voucher: Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)

Comments:  Used as a cover crop, but poor forage. Invasive in Australia. (Csurhes & Edwards, 1998; p. 146).


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This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 8 MAR 2013.