Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Calopogonium caeruleum
(Benth.) Hemsl., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Other Latin names:  Stenolobium caeruleum Benth.

Common name(s): [more details]

English: calopo, calopogonium, jicama

Habit:  herb

Description:  "Climbing plant with adpressed ferruginous hairs on stems, petioles and peduncles. Stipules caducous; stipels glandular; petioles 2.5-14 cm long, middle leaflet rhomboid, the laterals asymmetrically ovate, 5-14 cm long, 2.4-11 cm wide, apex acute, base obtuse, rounded or truncate, densely appressed pubescent on both surfaces. Flowers several at each node of a spaced many-flowered false raceme to 22 cm long; peduncle 5 cm long; calyx 5 mm long, pubescent with ferruginous hairs, teeth narrowly triangular; corolla blue or purple, about 1 cm long. Fruit oblong, 4-6 cm long, 8-9 mm wide, straight, adpressed pubescent, transversely grooved between the 4-8 seeds; seed oblong, 4-6 mm long, red when fresh, drying dark brown, shiny" (Howard, 1988; pp. 453-454).

Habitat/ecology:  Widely cultivated as a cover crop. "It requires light for good growth, appreciates support, and tends to die back when exposed in the dry season but recovers well after rain. It was originally panted in the full sun where it formed a low dense cover over the soil, but since being increasingly shaded by taller shrubs and trees it now forms an open tangled web up to 1.5 m tall" (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 23).

Propagation:  Seed, viable for several years in the soil (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 23).

Native range:  Mexico, Central America, Greater and Lesser Antilles, South America; also cultivated (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1987) (voucher ID: BISH 532448)
Taxon name on voucher: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 630)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd L. (2003) (p. 27)
East Maui. Vouchers cited: Starr & Martz 001012-1 (BISH), Oppenheimer & F. Duvall H110041 (BISH)
Now common in Eucalyptus forest and pastures.
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Bishop Museum (U.S.A. Hawaii. Honolulu.) (1986) (voucher ID: BISH 534794)
Taxon name on voucher: Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 54)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) native
U.S. Dept. Agr., Agr. Res. Serv. (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
invasive
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (pp. 23, 107)

Comments:  A vigorous twining and climbing herb. Dense stands tend to smother other seedlings (Swarbrick, 1997; p. 23).


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This page was created on 16 JAN 2004 and was last updated on 8 MAR 2013.