Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Calophyllum inophyllum
L., Clusiaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 6 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Calophyllum inophyllum)

Other Latin names:  Balsamaria inophyllum Lour.; Calophyllum apetalum Blanco; Calophyllum bingator Roxb.; Calophyllum blumei Wight; Calophyllum ovatifolium noronha; Calophyllum spurium Choisy; Calophyllum wakamatsui Kaneh.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chuukese: ráguch, rákir, rakich, rekich

English: Alexandrian laurel, Alexandrian-laurel, beach mahogany, portia tree

Hawaiian: kamani, kamanu

Kosraean: itu

Niuean: fetau

Palauan: btaes

Pohnpeian: isou, isyo, lipas, mokil, ruckiss, sepang

Samoan: fetau, tamanu, tefau

Tongan: feta'u, tamanu

Ulithian: f&omacron;t&omacron;i

Unknown: dilo, feta'u, fetau, tamanu, te itai

Woleaian: ragïaut;ch

Yapese: biyuuch, fitus, ragich, ragick, ragitr, ragu&emacron;s, ravich, revich, sevan, sevang, vitou

Habit:  tree

Description:  In Tonga: "Medium to large, hard-wooded tree. Leaves simple, opposite, oval, subobovate or subovate, apex rounded, obtuse, sometimes emarginate or acutish, the base acute, up to 15 cm. or more long and 8 cm. wide, entire, leathery, glossy, pinnately nerved, midrib stout, lateral nerves fine, very numerous, parallel, petioles 1-2 cm. long, stout, canaliculate. Flowers about 2 cm. in width, in axillary, racemose clusters, corolla waxy white, stamens numerous; fruit globose, about 3-4 cm. in diameter, flesh thin, one-seeded." (Plants of Tonga, p. 187)

"Tree 20-60' tall; trunk usu leaning; sap yellow, sticky. Lf peti 0.4-1" long; blades elliptic, ovate, obovate, or oblong, 3.25-8" x 1.75-4.5", deep glossy green, leathery, base wedge-shaped to rounded, margins ±rolled under, apex ±rounded. Infl axillary, usu 5-15 flwd. Flws bisexual, ca 0.75-1" ⌀,
fragrant; tep usu 8, white, hooded; stam ca 200-350; stigma shield-shaped, 3-5 rayed. Frt ±globose, 1-2" ⌀, indehiscent, grayish brown, eroding, stone hard." (A Tropical Garden Flora, p. 237)

"Tree 1530 m. high, usually with a short trunk and long branches; bark pale grey and fawn with shallow elliptic longitudinal fissures; branches smooth, tetragonal when young, eventually cylindric. Leaves petiolate; lamina (8) 10 (45) 510 cm., coriaceous, concolorous, broadly elliptic-oblong to obovate, rounded or shallowly emarginate at the apex, often with undulate margin, broadly cuneate at the base, with lateral nerves prominent on both surfaces; petiole 1015 mm. long, broadened and flattened towards the apex. Inflorescences 78 cm. long, racemose, lax, 312-flowered, in the axils of the upper leaves. Flower-buds 79 mm. in diam., globose. Flowers pedicellate; pedicels 154 cm. long, spreading to ascending. Sepals 4, reflexed, deciduous, outer ones c. 78 mm. long, orbicular, inner ones c. 10 mm. long, obovate, petaloid, rounded at the apex. Petals 4, 912 mm. long, obovoid, narrower than the inner sepals, reflexed, deciduous. Stamens in 4 fascicles, ?, orange, equal to or rather shorter than the petals; anthers c. 15 mm. long, narrowly oblong. Ovary deep pink, globose; style c. 4 times as long as the ovary, scarcely exceeding the stamens, flexuous. Drupe c. 254 cm. in diam. when ripe, green, globose, smooth, with thick pericarp." (Flora Zambesiaca)

Habitat/ecology:  "The slow-growing [Calophyllum inophyllum] is naturally adapted to sandy soild, salt exposure (in both soil and air), and intense sunlight. It grows in any fertile, permeable soil and does well in partial shade." (A Tropical Garden Flora, p. 237)

"Rocky and sandy sea-shores." (Flora Zambesiaca)

In Palau, flowers observed in May and September-November; fruits observed September-November. (Forests of Palau)

In Tonga, "in thicket near beach"; "in forest near center of island"; "near beach along southern end of island"; "coastal forest, alt. 10 m."; "[f]requent along the lower terraces and throughout Tonga." (Plants of Tonga, p. 187)

Propagation:  On Niue, note Sykes' observation of "persistent cultivation relics, and as the seed was probably not deliberately sown they can be considered semi-adventive." (Sykes, 1970, p. 64)

Native range:  "Calophyllum inophyllum is native to tropical seacosts from eastern Africa and Madagascar across the Indian Ocean to India, Sri Lanka, all of Southeast Asia, northern Australia, Indonesia, Taiwan, the Philippines, and across the western Pacific1396." (A Tropical Garden Flora, p. 237)

"C[alophyllum] inophyllum appears to be native in Madagascar and the Mascarene Is. and therefore, although it is sometimes grown as a source of oil for pharmaceutical purposes ('Alexandrian Laurel'), there seems every probability that it is indigenous in at least some of its stations along the east coast of the African mainland and on the off-shore islands." (Flora Zambesiaca)

"Indigenous to coastal areas from tropical Africa to eastern Polynesia." (Sykes, 1970, p. 100)

See also: Hortipedia; IUCN Red List; Midway Atoll Vascular Plant Checklista, p. 42; and Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands, p. 51.

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island native
Whistler, W. A. (1992) (pp. 14, 45)
Vouchers cited: Garber 704; Yuncker 9194
American Samoa
Tutuila Islands
Tutuila Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Cook Islands
Cook Islands
Cook Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Dublon (Tonowas) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Lele Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Dagamanga Islet   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Deake Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqa) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
French Polynesia
French Polynesia Islands
French Polynesia Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Agakauitai Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Fatu Hiva Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Tuamotu Archipelago
Tuamotu Islands native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "...Malesia to Australia and the Tuamotus."
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "A Polynesian introduction, now occasionally cultivated."
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "A Polynesian introduction, now occasionally cultivated."
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Lāna‘i Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "A Polynesian introduction, now occasionally cultivated."
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "A Polynesian introduction, now occasionally cultivated."
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "A Polynesian introduction, now occasionally cultivated."
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
cultivated
abo. intro.
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "A Polynesian introduction, now occasionally cultivated."
Kiribati
Kiribati
Kiribati (Republic of)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
Bigatyeland Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands
Marshall Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Marshall Islands
Ralik Chain
Bikini (Pikinni) Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 100)
Vouchers cited: CHR 168833 (Fr.); CHR 168834; CHR 168835 (Fr.); "Indigenous to coastal areas from tropical Africa to eastern Polynesia." (Sykes, 1970, p. 100); so does this imply that it's native to Niue?? -pt/20171202
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific
Oceania
Micronesia native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Pacific
Pacific
Malaya   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Pacific
Pacific
Polynesia   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Pacific
Pacific
Polynesia native
Whistler, W. A. (1984) (p. 40)
"...the wide-ranging littoral tree Calophyllum inophyllum"
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Hatohobei (islands)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Hatohobei Group
Helen Reef   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Kayangel Atoll
Kayangel Islet   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island native
cultivated
Kitalong, Ann Hillmann (2008) (pp. 16-18, 20, 24)
In Palau, flowers observed in May and September-November; fruits observed September-November.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Koror (Oreor) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Palau Islands (main island group) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Merir Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Sonsorol Group
Sonsorol Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   PNGTreesKey (year unknown)
Cites specimen[s]: P.F. Stevens LAE 54724, 27 Nov 1971 (LAE 142467), web page accessed 20171209.
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Samoa
Samoa   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Samoa
Samoa native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Ha‘apai Group
Lifuka Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15792
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
‘Eua Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Vouchers cited: Yuncker 15326; Yuncker 15638
Tonga
Tongatapu Group
Tongatapu Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Voucher cited: Yuncker 15024
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Niuafo‘ou Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Voucher cited: Hüaut;rlimann 652
Tonga
Vava‘u Group
Vava‘u Island   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Source: Crosby
Tuvalu
Tuvalu (Ellis) Islands
Nanumea Atoll   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Johnston Atoll
Johnston Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aneityum Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Vanuatu (Republic of)   Ramon, Laurence/Sam, Chanel (2015) (p. 52)
Wallis and Futuna
Wallis and Futuna (Horne) Islands
Futuna Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Asia
Asia
Myanmar native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Asia
Asia (Pacific rim)
Malesia native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "...Malesia to Australia and the Tuamotus."
Australia
Australia
Australia native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, "...Malesia to Australia and the Tuamotus."
Australia
Australia (continental)
Northern Territory native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Australia
Australia (continental)
Queensland native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia (Kingdom of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Japan
Japan
Japan native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Africa
Africa
Africa native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20180710, see ref. for details (e.g., countries), "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
Africa
Africa
Africa (eastern)   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
Africa
Africa
Africa (eastern) native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710
India
India
India (Republic of)   Yuncker, T. G. (1959) (p. 187)
India
India
India (Republic of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 21080710, "Cultivated (also cult.) Naturalized (natzd. elsewhere)"
India
India
India (Republic of) native
Wagner, W. L./Herbst, D. R./Lorence, D. H. (year unknown)
accessed 20180710

Comments:  Present in Hawaii (Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems in Hawaii, p. 102; p. 104; p. 135; p. 729; Midway Atoll Vascular Plant Checklist, p. 42; A Tropical Garden Flora, p. 237). Present on Nauru (Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems in Hawaii, p. 616).

On Niue, note Sykes' observation of "persistent cultivation relics, and as the seed was probably not deliberately sown they can be considered semi-adventive." (Sykes, 1970, p. 64)

used/recommended as a "multipurpose species" in Pacific islands (Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands, p. 41); used for agroforestry in Federated States of Micronesia, Hawaii, and the Marshall Islands (Agroforestry Guides for Pacific Islands, p. 86)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Calophyllum inophyllum, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 10 JUL 2018.