Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Calamus spp.
Arecaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate, score: 3 (Go to the risk assessment)

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: bejuko-n-halumtano

Chinese: sheng teng shu

English: rattan

Kwara‘ae: kalitao‘alo

Nangu: male

Other: rotan, rotan bejuro-n-halumtan

Palauan: bangerenguis ra ngebard

Habit:  vine

Description:  "Solitary or clustering, stemless to high-climbing or erect pleonanthic dioecious rattans; sheaths usually heavily armed with spines, the spines frequently highly organised.  Flagellum (sterile inflorescence) often present, borne on the leaf sheath, sometimes absent and replaced by a cirrus at the end of the leaf, very rarely both present or both absent; knee often present; ocrea sometimes well developed, usually inconsicuous.  Make and female inflorescences superficially similar, often ending in a long flagellum, sometimes with gradual succession of branches, often with descrete distant branches (partial inflorescences); bracts always tubular at the base, rarely with broad limbs splitting down one side, but if so, then the base always tubular and unsplit, bracts variously armed; partial inflorescences usually much longer than the subtending bract, very rarely shorter, involucre and involucrophore inconspicuous.  Male flower with cup-shaped calyx, usually with 3 well defined lobes; corolla split almost to the base into 3 petals; stamens 6, very shortly epipetalous; pistillode minute.  Female flower borne together with a sterile male flower as a pair.  Sterile male flower like the fertile male, but with empty anthers.  Female flower usually larger than the male, with calyx shallowly 3-lobed; corolla with 3 petals; staminodes 6, joined basally to form a ring; ovary tipped with 3 stigmas and covered with reflexed scales; locules 3 with one ovule in each.  Fruit variously shaped, covered in reflexed scales.  Seed usually one only, very variable in shape, covered in a thin to thick sarcotesta; endosperm homogeneous or ruminate; embryo basal or lateral. Seedling leaf bifid or pinnate"  (Dransfield, 1997; p. 85).

"Shrubs or climbing palms (rattans) with hooks. Leaves pinnate, spiraled, the midrib (in some species) prolonged into a hooked flagella (the cirrus); sheath cylindric, rather long, ligulate at the upper end, sometimes flagellate. Leaflets linear, numerous, sometimes ciliate. Inflorescences unisexual (dioecious), inserted on petiolar sheath, often branched; main axis sometimes prolonged into a flagellate extension. Flowers numerous, in spikelets, female flowers usually beside sterile male flowers. Calyx briefly 3-lobed. Stamens 6, filaments somewhat connate, surrounding (usually) a pistillode. Corolla 3-fid, staminodes 6, ovary 3-celled, in female flowers. Fruit dry, stylose, within a scaly pericarp" (Stone, 1970; p. 137).

Habitat/ecology:  (no habitat/ecology info known by PIER)

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "Africa, India and South china, Sri Lanka, southwards through the Malay Archipelago to Australia and Fiji"  (Dransfield, 1997; p. 85).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Calamus rotang C. Linnaeus
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1987) (p. 81)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Raulerson, L./Rinehart, A. F./Falanruw, M. C. (1996) (p. 15)
Naturalized
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Lorence, David H./LaRosa, Anne Marie (2009) (p. 14)
Voucher: Lorence 9918 (PTBG, BNM, NY)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1990) (voucher ID: BNM 99999999)
Taxon name on voucher: Calamus sp.
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Beleu National Museum (Republic of Palau. Koror.) (1982) (voucher ID: BNM 3176)
Taxon name on voucher: none
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (2008) (voucher ID: PTBG 211)
Taxon name on voucher: Calamus sp.
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago   Peekel, P. G. [translated by E. E. Henty] (1984) (p. 61)
Papua New Guinea
Bougainville Islands
Bougainville Island   Foreman, D. B. (1971) (p. 29)
Calamus hollrungii Becc.
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands native
Merrill, Elmer D. (1925) (p. 147)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Guadalcanal Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1956) (voucher ID: BISH 628246)
Taxon name on voucher: Calamus (Genus of Arecaceae)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Mikira (San Cristobal) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1932) (voucher ID: BISH 102389)
Taxon name on voucher: Calamus hollrungii Becc.
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 79842)
Taxon name on voucher: Calamus (Genus of Arecaceae)
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Ndeni (Santa Cruz) Island   Bishop Museum (Honolulu) (1972) (voucher ID: BISH 699253)
Taxon name on voucher: Calamus (Genus of Arecaceae)
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
China
China
China (People's Republic of) native
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
China
China
Hong Kong native
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 294)
Calamus faberii Becc., Calamus palustris Griff., Calamus tetradactylus Hance, Calamus thysanolepis Hance, Calamus walkerii Hance
Singapore
Singapore
Singapore (Republic of) native
Chong, Kwek Yan/Tan, Hugh T. W./Corlett, Richard T. (2009) (p. 21)


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 1 JAN 1999 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2013.