Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Calamus caesius
Blume, Arecaceae
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Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Evaluate; score: 3 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Calamus caesius)

Other Latin names:  Calamus glaucescens Blume; Palmijuncus caesius (Blume) Kuntze; Palmijuncus glaucescens Kuntze; Rotang caesius (Blume) Baill.

Common name(s): [more details]

Dusun: sogoh

English: rattan palm

Indonesian: rotan sega

Malay: rotan sega

Habit:  shrub/vine

Description:  "This attractive climbing palm native to rainforests from the Malay Peninsula to Borneo and the Philippines forms very large clusters of thin stems that can grow to an astounding 100m long and are armed with a few very broad spines. The leaves have practically no stalks and broad leaflets that are silvery white underneath and arranged in small, widely spaced groups and is is equipped with a short cirrus, a whip-like extension of the leaf midrib that the plant uses to support itself with on other trees. Rotan sega produces the highest quality thin canes and these are widely used in the local furniture industry as well as for traditional uses such as weaving. (RPS.com)" (Palm Pedia)

"A clustering rattan of moderate size. The stems typically form a dense clump, and can climb up to 100m. The stems without sheaths measure from 7-18mm diameter, and those with sheaths up to 25mm. The surface of the cane is highly polished, but the outer layer flakes easily on bending. The sheaths have a sparse grey covering and are armed with scattered, pale, triangular spines. The leaf is cirrate, with about 15 pairs of leaflets. These are usually arranged in alternate pairs, and have a pale blue-grey lower surface." (Projec Etnobotani Kinabalu, p. 42)

"Clustering moderate-sized rattan, climbing high into the canopy with stems ultimately reaching 100 m or more, the clump tending to be close and eventually with many aerial stems; stem without sheaths variable, 7-18 mm in diam., with sheaths to 25 mm in diam., internodes up to 50 cm (even longer in juveniles); cane surface highly polished, the outer surface snapping off in flakes when the cane is bent. Sheaths dull green, armed with sparse pale triangular spines to 15 x 5 mm and sparse grey indumentum, smaller spines sometimes also present; knee prominent; ocrea inconspicuous. Leaf cirrate to 1.5 m including the cirrus to 75 cm; petiole present in juvenile shoots, absent in mature climbing stems; leaflets about 15 on each side of the rachis, irregularly arranged, usually in alternate pairs, occasionally in 3's, dark green on the upper surface, white beneath, somewhat plicate, often cucullate, the longest to 30 x 5 cm. Inflorescences to 2 m with 7 or more partial inflorescences to 75 cm, the whole inflorescence sometimes ending in a divaricate axis to 20 cm; bracts tubular with sparse brown indumentum; female rachillae c. 10 cm long. Ripe fruit ovoid, about 15 x 10 mm, with a beak to 2 mm, and covered in 15 - 21 vertical rows of greenish white scales drying pale straw-coloured. Seed ovoid, about 12 x 7 mm; endosperm deeply ruminate. Seedling leaf forked, the two lobes parallel, 1/4 the length of the whole lamina, dark green on the upper surface, white beneath. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)/Palmweb." (Palm Pedia)

Habitat/ecology:  "It [Calamus caesius] grows in a range of habitats, occurring up to 800 m asl." (Projec Etnobotani Kinabalu, p. 42)

"Usually in the lowlands on alluvial flats, seasonally flooded river banks, and margins of freshwater or peat-swamp forest, but not in permanent swamps. Occasionally found on drier sites up to 800 metres above sea-level. . . ." (Plants for a future)

"C. caesius is a very widespread species, occurring in a wide range of habitats from the lowlands up to about 800 m altitude. In some localities it may well have been introduced. It seems to grow best on alluvial sites but seedlings can be killed by prolonged flooding. In Sarawak it will occur at relatively high elevations, such as on steep ridges in hill dipterocarp forest at 800 m." (Palm Pedia)

Propagation:  (no propagation information known by PIER)

Native range:  Thailand, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra), Malaysia, and Philippines (Palawan) (GRIN)

"This species [Calamus caesius] is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. . . . It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand. " (Projec Etnobotani Kinabalu, p. 42)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  (no invaded habitats or impacts known by PIER; please let us know if you know of such information we should add here)

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Palawan native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171201
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Palawan native (presumably)
Martin, G. J./Agama, A. Lee/Beaman, J. H./Nais, J. (2002) (p. 42)
"This species is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. ... It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand."
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Indonesia
Indonesia
Kalimantan native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171201
Indonesia
Sunda Islands
Sumatra native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171201
Indonesia
Sunda Islands
Sumatra native (presumably)
Martin, G. J./Agama, A. Lee/Beaman, J. H./Nais, J. (2002) (p. 42)
"This species is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. ... It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand."
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malay peninsula native (presumably)
Martin, G. J./Agama, A. Lee/Beaman, J. H./Nais, J. (2002) (p. 42)
"This species is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. ... It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand."
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171201
Malaysia/Indonesia
Borneo
Borneo native (presumably)
Martin, G. J./Agama, A. Lee/Beaman, J. H./Nais, J. (2002) (p. 42)
"This species is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. ... It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand."
Malaysia/Indonesia
Borneo
Sabah native (presumably)
cultivated
Martin, G. J./Agama, A. Lee/Beaman, J. H./Nais, J. (2002) (p. 42)
"This species is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. ... It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand."
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native
U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (year unknown)
accessed 20171201
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) native (presumably)
Martin, G. J./Agama, A. Lee/Beaman, J. H./Nais, J. (2002) (p. 42)
"This species is widespread in the lowlands of Sabah, and throughout Borneo. ... It is also found in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Palawan and southern Thailand."

Comments:  Cultivated in China, Thailand, Indonesia, and Malaysia (GRIN)

"Without doubt the best quality cane of its size class, ideal for all types of binding and weaving in the furniture industry and widely used locally in traditional weaving. (J. Dransfield, The Rattans of Sarawak. 1992)/Palmweb." (Palm Pedia)

Control:  (control info not known by PIER)


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This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 21 MAY 2018.