Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

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Cajanus cajan
(L.) Millsp., Fabaceae
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Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  Low risk, score: 0 (Go to the risk assessment)

Other Latin names:  Cajanus bicolor DC.; Cajanus indicus Spreng.; Cytisus cajan L.

Common name(s): [more details]

Chamorro: lenteha franchesa, lenteja francesa

Chinese: mu dou

English: Congo pea, pigeon pea, red gram, yellow dhal

Fijian: nggiringgiri, pi

French: ambrévade, ambrevade, pois cajan, pois d'Angole

Hawaiian: pī nūnū, pī Pokoliko

Hindi: arhar, arhar dhal, dahl, dhal

Japanese: ki-mame

Mangarevan: pipi

Spanish: cachito, fréjol de palo, frijol de árbol, gandul

Habit:  shrub

Description:  "Shrubs up to 2 (-4) m tall; stems ribbed, golden sericeous.  Leaflets elliptic to lanceolate, lateral ones obliquely elliptic, 5-13 cm long, 1.5-6 cm wide, upper surface glabrate, lower surface usually densely silvery pilose.  Flowers stalked, in axillary pseudo-racemes, these rarely also terminal; calyx golden tomentose and glandular, persistent in fruit; standard yellow, often reddish-lined or orange to purple externally, 12-17 mm long, wings yellow, keel yellowish green tinged orange to purple.  Pods yellow or green striped with maroon or dark purple, straight to sickle-shaped, 2-8 (-13) cm long, 0.4-1 (-1.7) cm wide, pubescent and glandular, weakly septate within.  Seeds 2-9, variable in shape and coloration, buff to cream or reddish brown, slightly laterally flattened, 4-9 mm long, 3-8 mm in diameter, the rim-aril well-developed when seeds unripe."  (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 649)

Habitat/ecology:  "Pigeon pea grows on a broad range of well-drained soils, from sands to clays over sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic parent materials. It tolerates pH's of from 4.5 to 8.4 and some varieties tolerate 6 to 12 mmhos/cm of salinity. However, the species is sensitive to waterlogging. Pigeon pea will grow in areas that receive from 530 to 4000 mm of mean annual precipitation (Van Den Beldt 1988). Pigeon pea is intolerant of shade and tolerates only moderate competition. It does best in full sun on bare ground but can grow with side shade or broken shade from trees and a low cover of grass and forbs. Growth is moderately slow during the first 2 to 3 months of life during which time seedlings are not competitive with grass and weeds; afterwards pigeon pea competes well with vegetation equal or lower in height (van der Maesen 1990)"  (Wildland shrubs of the United States and its territories).

In Hawai‘i, "cultivated and occasionally escaping, apparently naturalized in open, disturbed areas such as roadsides, pastures, and cane fields, 25-610 m". (Wagner et al., 1999; p. 649). In Fiji, "in cultivation and also as a weed along roadsides, in canefields, and in cultivated areas. ...a locally frequent weed" (Smith, 1985; pp. 251-252). In New Caledonia, "cette plante, dont la culture fut prônée par Vieillard (1858) et Pancher (1966) se trouve parfois dans les jardins, surtout mélanésiens; elle est aussi assez répandue dans les fourré secondaires" (MacKee, 1994; p. 80).

Propagation:  Seed

Native range:  "The species is assumed to have originated in Africa and in prehistoric times to have reached India, where it was improved by selection" (Smith, 1985; pp. 251-252). Origin India; widely cultivated in tropics (GRIN).

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Tinian Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
Ma‘uke Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
McCormack, Gerald (2013)
Naturalized
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Floreana Group
Floreana Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Isabela Group
Volcán Sierra Negra, Isabela Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
San Cristóbal Group
San Cristóbal Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Ecuador (Galápagos Islands)
Santa Cruz Group
Santa Cruz Island introduced
cultivated
Charles Darwin Foundation (2008)
Federated States of Micronesia
Kosrae Island
Kosrae Island introduced
cultivated
Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy (2010) (p. 16)
Rare
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Glassman, S. F. (1952) (p. 74)
Voucher cited: Glassman 2914 (US)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island introduced
cultivated
Herrera, Katherine/Lorence, David H./Flynn, Timothy/Balick, Michael J. (2010) (p. 89)
Voucher cited: S.F. Glassman 2914 (BISH)
Federated States of Micronesia
Yap Islands
Yap (Waqab) Island   Wagner, W. L./ Herbst, D. R./Weitzman, A./Lorence, D.H. (2013)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Kandavu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 251-252)
Voucher cited: Smith 298
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Vanua Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 251-252)
Vouchers cited: DA 9646, DA 10467
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Smith, Albert C. (1985) (pp. 251-252)
Vouchers cited: Greenwood 213, DA 10361, DA 10281, DA 14351, DA 9478, DA 9142, DA 5993, DA 9142, DA 5993, Greenwood 213A, DA (Jan. 23, 1952), DA 2734, DA 2526, Tothill 136
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Mangareva (Gambier) Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: St. John 14502 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Gambier Islands
Taravai Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, Harold (1988) (p. 15)
Voucher cited: St. John 14778 (BISH)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Hiva Oa Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
invasive
Lorence, David H./Wagner, Warren L. (2013)
French Polynesia
Marquesas Islands
Nuku Hiva (Nukahiva) Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Cultivée
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Raiatea (Havai) Island introduced
cultivated
Welsh, S. L. (1998) (p. 141)
Voucher cited: Moore 635
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island   Fosberg, F. R. (1997) (p. 48)
French Polynesia
Society Islands
Tahiti Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence (legit W.G. Ziarnik) 6957 (PAP)
Planté, paraît rare à Tahiti.
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Rurutu Island introduced
cultivated
Florence, J./Chevillotte, H./Ollier, C./Meyer, J.-Y. (2013)
Voucher cited: J. Florence 6160 (PAP)
Cultivée
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
cultivated
Stone, Benjamin C. (1970) (p. 324)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 649)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 649)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 649)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Moloka‘i Island introduced
Wester, Lyndon (1992) (p. 138)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island introduced
invasive
cultivated
Wagner, Warren L./Herbst, Derral R./Sohmer, S. H. (1999) (p. 649)
Voucher cited: Mann & Brigham 52 (BISH)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Oliver, Royce (1979) (p. 103)
Nauru
Nauru Island
Nauru Island introduced
cultivated
Thaman, R. R./Fosberg, F. R./Manner, H. I./Hassall, D. C. (1994) (p. 138)
New Caledonia
Îles Bélep (Belep Islands)
Île Art introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 80-81)
Voucher cited: MacKee 19445
New Caledonia
Îles Loyauté (Loyalte Islands)
Îles Ouvéa (Ouvea Atoll) introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 80-81)
Voucher cited: Däniker 1987
New Caledonia
New Caledonia Archipelago
Île Grande Terre introduced
invasive
cultivated
MacKee, H. S. (1994) (pp. 80-81)
Vouchers cited: MacGillivray 28, Pancher 6686, MacKee 4639, MacKee 5128, MacKee 24353, MacKee 31249, MacKee 31253
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
cultivated
Sykes, W. R. (1970) (pp. 144-145)
Vouchers cited: CHR 150537, CHR 150538
Niue
Niue
Niue Island introduced
invasive
Space, James C./Waterhouse, Barbara M./Newfield, Melanie/Bull, Cate (2004) (p. 39)
Papua New Guinea
Bismarck Archipelago
Bismarck Archipelago introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Philippines
Philippine Islands
Philippine Islands introduced
invasive
cultivated
abo. intro.
Merrill, Elmer D. (1923) (p. 314)
In the settled areas, cultivated, semicultivated, and in some regions spontaneous, occurring from sea level to 2,400 m. Probably of prehistoric introduction.
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Island introduced
cultivated
St. John, H. (1987) (p. 36)
Voucher cited: St. John 14997
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands introduced
cultivated
Hancock, I. R./Henderson, C. P. (1988) (p. 53)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Midway Atoll
Sand Island introduced
cultivated
Starr, Forest/Starr, Kim/Loope, Lloyd (2008) (pp. B-5)
Voucher cited: Starr & Starr 080610-04
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Malakula (Malekula) Island   National Tropical Botanical Garden (U.S.A. Hawaii. Kalaheo.) (1988) (voucher ID: PTBG 30341)
Taxon name on voucher: Cajanus cajan
Pacific Rim
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia
Australia (continental)
Australia (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
China
China
China (People's Republic of) introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, hills; 100-900 m".
China
China
Hong Kong introduced
cultivated
Wu, Te-lin (2001) (p. 139)
Colombia
Colombia
Colombia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Ecuador (Mainland)
Ecuador
Ecuador (Republic of) (continental) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Honduras
Honduras
Honduras (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indonesia
Indonesia
Indonesia (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Japan
Japan (country) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Japan
Ryukyu Islands
Ryukyu Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Malaysia
Malaysia
Malaysia (country of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mexico
Mexico
Mexico (United Mexican States) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Panama
Panama
Panama (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Perú
Perú
Perú (Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Taiwan
Taiwan Island
Taiwan Island introduced
invasive
Zhengyi, Wu/Raven, Peter H./Deyuan, Hong (2013)
"Roadsides, hills; 100-900 m".
Thailand
Thailand
Thailand (Kingdom of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Vietnam
Vietnam
Vietnam (Socialist Republic of) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Indian Ocean
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
Australia (Indian Ocean offshore islands)
Christmas Island Group
Christmas Island introduced
cultivated
Swarbrick, J. T. (1997) (p. 107)
Possibly naturalized.
Comoros
Comoro Islands
Comoro Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
La Réunion (France)
La Réunion Island
La Réunion Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Mauritius Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Mauritius
Mautitius Islands (Mauritius and Rodrigues)
Rodrigues Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
French Territory of Mayotte
Mayotte Islands
Mayotte Island introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Agalega Island introduced
Fosberg, F. R./Sachet, Marie-Hélène/Stoddart, D. R. (1983) (p. 123)
Seychelles
Seychelles Islands
Seychelles Islands introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states) introduced
ILDIS Co-ordinating Centre (2013)


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This page was created on 28 JUN 2004 and was last updated on 7 MAR 2013.