Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

Caesalpinia major
(Medik.) Dandy & Exell, Fabaceae
Click on an image for links to BIGGER PICTURES


Present on Pacific Islands?  yes

Primarily a threat at high elevations?  no

Risk assessment results:  High risk; score: 10 (Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment for Caesalpinia major)

Other Latin names:  Bonduc majus Medik.; Caesalpinia globulorum Bakh. & P. Royen; Caesalpinia major sensu Brenan (misapplied to Caesalpinia volkensii Harms); Guilandina ovalifolia (Urb.) Britton

Common name(s): [more details]

English: yellow nickar, yellow nicker-bean

Niuean: talamoa, talamoa foto

Samoan: 'anaoso, se'u pe'a

Habit:  shrub/vine

Description:  "Liana or scandent shrub, which attains 15 m in length. Stems cylindrical, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, densely spiny. Leaves bipinnate, paripinnate, up to 60 cm long; pinnae 3-10 pairs, opposite; leaflets 4-8 pairs per pinna, opposite, 3.5-7.7 2.5-3.7 cm, elliptical, ovate, or oblong, chartaceous, glabrous or puberulent, the apex obtuse or acute, mucronate, the base unequal, rounded, or one side obtuse, the margins entire, revolute, ciliate; upper surface glabrous, slightly /shiny; lower surface with the midvein prominent, glabrous or puberulent; petiolules short, puberulent; petioles and rachis spiny, puberulent; stipules minute, deciduous. Flowers in axillary racemes, up to 30 cm long; rachis tomentulose, unarmed; bracts lanceolate, long-acuminate, ca. 1 cm long, deciduous. Calyx campanulate, 6-7 mm long, tomentose, the sepals reflexed, oblong. Petals yellow, 6-7 mm long, spathulate; stamens 10, the filaments unequal, shorter than the petals; ovary pubescent, the style and stigma glabrous. Legumes broadly oblong, 6-12 3-6 cm, sparsely spiny. Seeds ovoid or rounded, 1.5-2.5 cm long, yellow-orange." (Vines and Climbing Plants of PR/VI, pp. 235 & 237) [emphasis added by PIER].

Habitat/ecology:  "in the zone of mogotes" (Puerto Rico & the Virgin Islands) (Vines and Climbing Plants of PR/VI, p. 237)

On Ta'u (American Samoa): "Occasional in littoral habitats to montane forest, reported from sea level to 650 m elevation." (Botanical Inventory of Ta'u Unit, p. 49)

"Disturbed uplands, maritime hammock, rockland hammock." (NatureServe)

Propagation:  "A pantropical species with seeds capable of floating for great distances and remaining viable for a long time (Guppy, 1906, p. 189, etc.)." (Sykes, 1970, p. 54)

Native range:  Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, Cuba, Jamaica, the Bahamas, and Hispaniola (Vines and Climbing Plants of PR/VI, p. 237)

"pantropic in distribution" (Botanical Inventory of Ta'u Unit, p. 49)

Impacts and invaded habitats:  No invaded habitats or impacts are currently known by PIER. If you know of invaded habitats or impacts, please let us know.

Presence:

Pacific
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
American Samoa
American Samoa Islands
American Samoa Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Olosega Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
American Samoa
Manu‘a Islands
Ta‘u Island   Whistler, W. A. (1992) (p. 49)
"TA'U: (not collected). Not seen, but reported by reliable sources to occur on the island, although possibly not within the park boundaries." (p. 49)
Australia (Pacific offshore islands)
Norfolk Islands
Norfolk Island introduced
invasive
R.P. Randall (2007)
"naturalised", accessed 20180916 ("page was created on 13 September 2007 by PT, and was last updated on 04 October 2007 by PT based on data from Rod Randall's Global Compendium of Weeds database dated 24 January 2007")
Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (US)
Northern Mariana Islands
Rota Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Cook Islands
Southern Cook Islands
‘Atiu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Chuuk Islands
Chuuk Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Federated States of Micronesia
Pohnpei Islands
Pohnpei Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Fiji Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Lau Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Fiji
Fiji Islands
Viti Levu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
French Polynesia
Austral (Tubuai) Islands
Tubuai Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Guam
Guam Island
Guam Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Hawai‘i (Big) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Kaua‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
Maui Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
State of Hawaii
Hawaiian Islands
O‘ahu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island Sykes, W. R. (1970) (p. 54)
Voucher cited: CHR 169767 (Fr.); "This prickly, scrambling shrub was said by Yuncker to be 'frequent in thickets' but today is very rare and apparently confined to a few patches of fernland scrub in the southern part of the island. I was told that people chop the plant out when they find it because of its unpleasant prickly nature, so this has probably contributed to its present scarcity." (Sykes, 1970, p. 54)
"A pantropical species with seeds capable of floating for great distances and remaining viable for a long time (Guppy, 1906, p. 189, etc.)." (Sykes, 1970, p. 54)
Niue
Niue
Niue Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Palau
Palau (Belau ) (main island group)
Babeldaob Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Papua New Guinea
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)
Papua New Guinea (eastern New Guinea Island)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands
Pitcairn Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Savai‘i Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Samoa
Western Samoa Islands
Upolu Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Tonga
Tonga Islands
Tonga Islands   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
United States (other Pacific offshore islands)
Palmyra Atoll
Menge Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Aniwa Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Êfaté (Efete) Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Erromango Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Vanuatu
New Hebrides Islands
Espirito Santo Island   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)
Also reported from
Country/Terr./St. &
Island group
Location Cited status &
Cited as invasive &
Cited as cultivated &
Cited as aboriginal introduction?
Reference &
Comments
United States (continental except west coast)
United States (other states)
United States (other states)   Consortium of Pacific Herbaria (2018)

Control:  If you know of control methods for Caesalpinia major, please let us know.


Need more info? Have questions? Comments? Information to contribute? Contact PIER! (pier@hear.org)

  [   PIER species lists  ]   [   PIER home  ]

This page was created on 12 SEP 2017 and was last updated on 16 SEP 2018.